Thermal stabilities of selected ternary phases of industrial interest in the Ag-Cu-S system have been studied by the calorimetric and electromotive force techniques. The ternary compounds Ag1.2Cu0.8S (mineral mackinstryite) and AgCuS (mineral stromeyerite) were equilibrated through high-temperature reaction of the pure Cu2S and Ag2S in an inert atmosphere. The synthesized single solid sample constituting the two ternary phases was ground into fine powders and lightly pressed into pellets before calorimetric measurements. An electrochemical cell incorporating the two equilibrated phase and additional CuS as a cathode material was employed. The measurement results obtained with both techniques were analyzed and thermodynamic properties in the system have been determined and compared with the available literature values. Enthalpy of fusion data of the Ag-richer solid solution (Ag,Cu)2S have also been determined directly from the experimental data for the first time. The thermodynamic quantities determined in this work can be used to calculate thermal energy of processes involving the Ag-Cu-S-ternary phases. By applying the obtained results and the critically evaluated literature data, we have developed a thermodynamic database. The self-developed database was combined with the latest pure substances database of the FactSage software package to model the phase diagram of the Ag2S-Cu2S system.
We analyze the role of the Allee effect - a positive correlation between population density and mean individual fitness - for ecological communities formed by a large number of species. Our study is performed using the generalized Lotka-Volterra model with random interactions between species. We obtain the phase diagram and analyze the nature of the multiple equilibria phase. Remarkable differences emerge with respect to the logistic growth case, thus revealing the major role played by the functional response in determining aggregate behaviors of large ecosystems.
The Raman spectra of four crystals of TbFe3-хGax (BO3) 4 solid solutions (x from 0 to 0.54) were studied in the temperature range from 8 to 350 K. The temperatures of structural phase transitions were determined. The observed spectral behavior is characteristic to condensation and restoration of soft modes. Soft modes are associated with a structural phase transition from the R32 phase to the P3121 phase. The Compositions-Temperature phase diagram was constructed