Water Retention
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Christina Reuter ◽  
Florian Ehlers ◽  
Philipp Vana ◽  
Helmut Küster

BackgroundGuidelines advise for more than 20 years to use occlusive plastic wraps for temperature management during delivery room care but data on efficacy of different types of wrap are still scarce.MethodsA random sample of seven different types of plastic wrap was tested using prewarmed aluminium blocks.ResultsThe most effective wrap increased the time to cool by 2°C by one-third for the core and by 100% for the surface whereas the least effective wrap led to even faster heat loss compared with no wrap at all. The least effective wrap concerning all capacities tested was made from polyurethane that contains potentially toxic and narcotic monomers. Heat and water retention did not correlate to wrap thickness.DiscussionLarge differences in heat and water retention capacity warrant a careful choice of the type of wrap as some might be counterproductive. Wraps containing polyurethane should not be used.

Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2052
Karolina Villagra-Mendoza ◽  
Federico Masís-Meléndez ◽  
Jaime Quesada-Kimsey ◽  
Carlos A. García-González ◽  
Rainer Horn

Soil degradation and water stress in Costa Rica challenge the production of highly sensitive crops. This work is aimed at evaluating the physical and chemical changes in sandy loam (SL) and a silt loam (SiL) soil when amended with bamboo biochar while estimating the enhancement of tomato productivity. Biochar, obtained from Guadua Angustifolia bamboo feedstock, was mixed into sieved bulk soil substrate from the topsoil, from Andosol and Umbrisol groups, at application rates of 1, 2.5, and 5% (dry mass). Physicochemical and morphological properties of biochar such as pH, hydrophobicity, scanning electron microscopy images, helium picnometry, specific surface area by the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, CHNS, and ash content were determined. Soil hydrophobicity, acidity, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity and water retention, available water content, and air capacity were analyzed for the amended soils. Tomato yield was quantified after a harvest period of two months. The admixture of biochar did not significantly increase soil cation exchange capacity but increased water retention in the range of available water content. Class A (>200 g) tomato yield increased 350% in the SL and 151% in the SiL. Class B (100–200 g) tomato yields increased 27% in the SL but decreased about 30% in the SiL. Tomato yield response seems attributable to variation of water retention capacity, available water content, and air capacity. These results support the use of adapted water management strategies for tomato production based on soil physical changes of biochar.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (20) ◽  
pp. 9452
Andrew Vidler ◽  
Olivier Buzzi ◽  
Stephen Fityus

The Hunter valley region in NSW Australia is an area with a heavy coal mining presence. As some mines come to their end of life, options are being investigated to improve the topsoil on post mining land for greater plant growth, which may allow economically beneficial farmland to be created. This research is part of an investigation into mixing a mine waste material, coal tailings, with topsoil in order to produce an improved soil for plant growth. Implementing such a solution requires estimation of the drying path of the water retention curves for the tailings and topsoil used. Instead of a lengthy laboratory measurement, a prediction of the drying curve is convenient in this context. No existing prediction models were found that were suitable for these mine materials, hence this paper proposes a simple and efficient model that can more accurately predict drying curves for these mine materials. The drying curves of two topsoils and two tailings from Australian coal mines were measured and compared with predictions using the proposed model, which performs favorably compared to several existing models in the literature. Additionally, the proposed model is assessed using data from a variety of fine- and coarse-grained materials in the literature. It is shown that the proposed model is overall more accurate than every other model assessed, indicating the model may be useful for various materials other than those considered in this study.

2021 ◽  
Vol 325 ◽  
pp. 65-70
Martin Vyšvařil ◽  
Patrik Bayer ◽  
Tomáš Žižlavský

In this study, the utilization of two types of spongilites in various addition in cement mortars has been investigated with the purpose of exploring a new application of this natural pozzolans as cement mortar additives. The influence of the addition of spongilites on the physico-mechanical properties, frost-resistance, and microstructure of cement mortars as a function of time was studied. The results revealed that the rising proportion of spongilites in cement mortars causes increase in water retention of mortars, reduction of their bulk density, increase in porosity of mortars due to the growing predominance of capillary pores maintaining sufficient mortars strengths, and slightly increase in the frost-resistance of mortars. After initial tests, partial replacement of cement in fine-grained cement mortars with hitherto unexploited spongilites seems to be very promising. Based on the achieved results, a 20% cement replacement can be recommended as optimal.

Balin B. Robertson ◽  
Julie D. Gillespie ◽  
Sam T. Carrick ◽  
Peter C. Almond ◽  
John Payne ◽  

Li Zhang ◽  
Miaomiao He ◽  
Lingdong Chen ◽  
Pinghua Xu ◽  
Jiaohui Bao ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (10) ◽  
pp. 404-410
Jamshid Easa ◽  
Najma Easa ◽  
Jacob Chappell ◽  
David Warriner

Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome with ever-increasing prevalence in the Western world. It is associated with extensive morbidity and mortality, as well as being a significant burden on global healthcare systems. It is due to impairment of ventricular filling or contraction, resulting in a constellation of physical symptoms and signs, primarily due to salt and water retention. An understanding of the pharmacological options to manage the condition is imperative to quickly alleviate symptoms and avert a rapidly progressive downward spiral, improving not only quality but also quantity of life.

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