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Membranes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 95
Muhammad Imran Khan ◽  
Abdallah Shanableh ◽  
Majeda Khraisheh ◽  
Fares AlMomani

Diffusion dialysis (DD) is an anion exchange membrane-based functional separation process used for acid recovery. TMA (trimethylamine) and BPPO (brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) were utilized in this manuscript to formulate AEMs (anion exchange membranes) for DD (diffusion dialysis) using the phase-inversion technique. FTIR (Fourier transfer infrared) analysis, proton NMR spectroscopy, morphology, IEC (ion exchange capacity), LER (linear expansion ratio), CR (fixed group concentration), WR (water uptake/adsorption), water contact angle, chemical, and thermal stability, were all used to evaluate the prepared membranes. The effect of TMA content within the membrane matrix on acid recovery was also briefly discussed. It was reported that porous AEMs have a WR of 149.6% to 233.8%, IEC (ion exchange capacity) of 0.71 to 1.43 mmol/g, CR (fixed group concentration) that ranged from 0.0046 mol/L to 0.0056 mol/L, LER of 3.88% to 9.23%, and a water contact angle of 33.10° to 78.58°. The UH (acid dialysis coefficients) for designed porous membranes were found to be 0.0043 to 0.012 m/h, with separation factors (S) ranging from 13.14 to 32.87 at the temperature of 25 °C. These observations are comparable to those found in the DF-120B commercial membrane with UH of 0.004 m/h and S of 24.3 m/h at the same temperature (25 °C). This porous membranes proposed in this paper are excellent choices for acid recovery through the diffusion dialysis process.

2022 ◽  
Vol 934 ◽  
David J. Fairhurst

The evaporation of multiple sessile droplets is both scientifically interesting and practically important, occurring in many natural and industrial applications. Although there are simple analytic expressions to predict evaporation rates of single droplets, there are no such frameworks for general configurations of droplets of arbitrary size, contact angle or spacing. However, a recent theoretical contribution by Masoud, Howell & Stone (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 927, 2021, R4) shows how considerable insight can be gained into the evaporation of arbitrary configurations of droplets without having either to obtain the solution for the concentration of vapour in the atmosphere or to perform direct numerical simulations of the full problem. The theoretical predictions show excellent agreement with simulations for all configurations, only deviating by 25 % for the most confined droplets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Taekyung Kim ◽  
Sunmok Kwon ◽  
Jeehyeon Lee ◽  
Joon Sang Lee ◽  
Shinill Kang

AbstractMetallic surface finishes have been used in the anti-biofouling, but it is very difficult to produce surfaces with hierarchically ordered structures. In the present study, anti-biofouling metallic surfaces with nanostructures superimposed on curved micro-riblets were produced via top-down fabrication. According to the attachment theory, these surfaces feature few attachment points for organisms, the nanostructures prevent the attachment of bacteria and algal zoospores, while the micro-riblets prohibit the settlement of macrofoulers. Anodic oxidation was performed to induce superhydrophilicity. It forms a hydration layer on the surface, which physically blocks foulant adsorption along with the anti-biofouling topography. We characterized the surfaces via scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, contact-angle measurement, and wear-resistance testing. The contact angle of the hierarchical structures was less than 1°. Laboratory settlement assays verified that bacterial attachment was dramatically reduced by the nanostructures and/or the hydration layer, attributable to superhydrophilicity. The micro-riblets prohibited the settlement of macrofoulers. Over 77 days of static immersion in the sea during summer, the metallic surface showed significantly less biofouling compared to a surface painted with an anticorrosive coating.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 158
Anna Clara De Felice ◽  
Valerio Di Di Lisio ◽  
Iolanda Francolini ◽  
Alessia Mariano ◽  
Antonella Piozzi ◽  

Polylactides (PLAs) are a class of polymers that are very appealing in biomedical applications due to their degradability in nontoxic products, tunable structural, and mechanical properties. However, they have some drawbacks related to their high hydrophobicity, lack of functional groups able to graft bioactive molecules, and solubility in unsafe solvents. To circumvent these shortcomings, porous scaffolds for tissue engineering were prepared by vigorously mixing a solution of isotactic and atactic PLA in nontoxic ethyl acetate at 70 °C with a water solution of choline taurinate. The partial aminolysis of the polymer ester bonds by taurine -NH2 brought about the formation of PLA oligomers with surfactant activity that stabilized the water-in-oil emulsion. Upon drying, a negligible shrinking occurred, and mechanically stable porous scaffolds were obtained. By varying the polymer composition and choline taurinate concentration, it was possible to modulate the pore dimensions (30–50 µm) and mechanical properties (Young’s moduli: 1–6 MPa) of the samples. Furthermore, the grafted choline taurinate made the surface of the PLA films hydrophilic, as observed by contact angle measurements (advancing contact angle: 76°; receding contact angle: 40°–13°). The preparation method was very simple because it was based on a one-pot mild reaction that did not require an additional purification step, as all the employed chemicals were nontoxic.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 253
Mariusz Gadzinowski ◽  
Maciej Kasprów ◽  
Teresa Basinska ◽  
Stanislaw Slomkowski ◽  
Łukasz Otulakowski ◽  

In this paper, an original method of synthesis of coil–brush amphiphilic polystyrene-b-(polyglycidol-g-polyglycidol) (PS-b-(PGL-g-PGL)) block copolymers was developed. The hypothesis that their hydrophilicity and micellization can be controlled by polyglycidol blocks architecture was verified. The research enabled comparison of behavior in water of PS-b-PGL copolymers and block–brush copolymers PS-b-(PGL-g-PGL) with similar composition. The coil–brush copolymers were composed of PS-b-PGL linear core with average DPn of polystyrene 29 and 13 of polyglycidol blocks. The DPn of polyglycidol side blocks of coil–b–brush copolymers were 2, 7, and 11, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, GPC, and FTIR methods. The hydrophilicity of films from the linear and coil–brush copolymers was determined by water contact angle measurements in static conditions. The behavior of coil–brush copolymers in water and their critical micellization concentration (CMC) were determined by UV-VIS using 1,6-diphenylhexa-1,3,5-trien (DPH) as marker and by DLS. The CMC values for brush copolymers were much higher than for linear species with similar PGL content. The results of the copolymer film wettability and the copolymer self-assembly studies were related to fraction of hydrophilic polyglycidol. The CMC for both types of polymers increased exponentially with increasing content of polyglycidol.

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