germination rate
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A. S. Hoang ◽  
H. H. Cong ◽  
V. P. Shukanov ◽  
L. A. Karytsko ◽  
S. N. Poljanskaja ◽  

Abstract Background Nano-particles of metals can be routinely synthesized. The cereal seeds treatment with the particles can improve early growth and crop production. Moreover, the treatment is robust and economical. Methods Metal (Fe0, Cu0, Co0), zinc oxide (ZnO) and chitosan-stabilized silver nano-particles were synthesized and applied to cereal seeds. The germination rate, early plant development and inhibition effects on pathogenic fungi were quantified. Results It was found that all nano-particles had a positive effect on the development of healthy cereal seedlings. In particular, the length of the above-ground part of the seedlings was increased by 8–22%. The highest inhibition effect was observed on Helminthosporium teres with the application of Co0 and chitosan-Ag. Pre-sowing treatment with metal nano-particles reduced the number of infected grains by two times for wheat and 3.6 times for barley. The application also increases the chlorophylls and carotenoids in both uninfected and infected seedlings. Conclusions The results demonstrated a robust application of nano-particles in improving cereal production. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
Li Zhao ◽  
Shengdong Mu ◽  
Weixiang Wang ◽  
Haibin Gu

AbstractResource utilization of chrome shavings (CS) has attracted a lot of attention from scientists and technologists in leather industry. Especially, the collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS are expected to find potential application values in agricultural field. However, there is no biotoxicity analysis of collagen hydrolysates from CS. Herein, the collagen hydrolysates with different molecular weights were produced from CS by three hydrolysis dechroming methods including alkaline hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis and alkaline-enzymatic synergistic hydrolysis, and the optimal hydrolysis process of CS was designed and conducted. To evaluate their toxicity, the three collagen hydrolysates were formulated into a nutrient solution for zebrafish development. The obtained results indicated that the hydrolysates with low concentrations (less than 0.6 mg/mL) were safe and could promote the development for zebrafish embryos. Furthermore, the three collagen hydrolysates were utilized as organic nitrogen sources and formulated into amino acid water-soluble fertilizers (AAWSF) including alkaline type fertilizer (OH), enzymatic type fertilizer (M) and alkaline-enzymatic type fertilizer (OH–M) for the early soilless seeding cultivation of wheat, soybean and rapeseed. It is worth mentioning that the chromium contents in the prepared AAWSF were less than 10 mg/kg, which is far less than the limit value in the standard (China, 50 mg/kg). The growth and development of seedlings (germination rate, plant height, fresh weight of leaves, soluble sugar content and chlorophyll content) were investigated. The corresponding results showed that the growth of seedlings watered with AAWSF was better compared with the other treatments, and the OH–M fertilizer had the best promoting effect on the seedlings growth and development, followed by the M and OH fertilizers. The safe toxicity assessment of the collagen hydrolysates will expand their application scope, and the use of collagen hydrolysates extracted from CS for seedlings growth also provides an effective and reasonable way to deal with the chromium-containing leather solid waste, which is an effective way to realize its resource utilization. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Chaohui Li ◽  
Weibo Sun ◽  
Shulin Cao ◽  
Rongxian Hou ◽  
Xiaogang Li ◽  

Colletotrichum fructicola, the causal agent of pear anthracnose, causes significant annual economic losses. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are highly conserved signal transduction pathways that play a crucial role in mediating cellular responses to environmental and host signals in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we identified an ortholog of the FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene, CfMK1, and characterized its function in C. fructicola. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants exhibited poorly developed aerial hyphae, autolysis, no conidial mass or perithecia on solid plates. However, the conidiation of the Cfmk1 mutant in PDB liquid medium was normal compared with that of the wild type (WT). Conidia of the Cfmk1 mutant exhibited a reduced germination rate on glass slides or plant surfaces. The Cfmk1 deletion mutants were unable to form appressoria and lost the capacity to penetrate plant epidermal cells. The ability of the Cfmk1 mutants to infect pear leaves and fruit was severely reduced. Moreover, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of the WT and Cfmk1 mutant was performed, and the results revealed 1886 upregulated and 1554 downregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the mutant. The DEGs were significantly enriched in cell wall and pathogenesis terms, which was consistent with the defects of the Cfmk1 mutant in cell wall integrity and plant infection. Overall, our data demonstrate that CfMK1 plays critical roles in the regulation of aerial hyphal growth, asexual and sexual reproduction, autolysis, appressorium formation, and pathogenicity.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 190
Lei Chu ◽  
Yiping Gao ◽  
Lingling Chen ◽  
Patrick E. McCullough ◽  
David Jespersen ◽  

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is cultivated as a forage crop and planted in various landscapes for soil conservation. There are numerous reports of failed white clover stands each year. A good understanding of the seed germination biology of white clover in relation to environmental factors is essential to achieve successful stand establishment. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the impacts of light, temperature, planting depth, drought, and salt stress on seed germination and the emergence of white clover. White clover is negatively photoblastic, and seed germination averaged 63 and 66% under light and complete dark conditions 4 weeks after planting (WAP), respectively. Temperature affected the seed germination speed and rate. At 1 WAP, seeds incubated at 15 to 25 °C demonstrated a significantly higher germination rate than the low temperatures at 5 and 10 °C; however, the germination rate did not differ among the temperature treatments at 4 WAP. The results suggest that white clover germination decreases with increasing sowing depths, and the seeds should be sown on the soil surface or shallowly buried at a depth ≤1 cm to achieve an optimal emergence. White clover seeds exhibited high sensitivity to drought and salinity stress. The osmotic potential and NaCl concentration required to inhibit 50% seed germination were −0.19 MPa and 62.4 mM, respectively. Overall, these findings provide quantifiable explanations for inconsistent establishment observed in field conditions. The results obtained in this research can be used to develop effective planting strategies and support the successful establishment of white clover stands.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jason C. S. Chan ◽  
Mark K. J. Ooi ◽  
Lydia K. Guja

Ploidy and species range size or threat status have been linked to variation in phenotypic and phenological seed and seedling traits, including seed size, germination rate (speed) and seedling stature. There is surprisingly little known about the ecological outcomes of relationships between ploidy, key plant traits and the drivers of range size. Here we determined whether ploidy and range size in Pomaderris, a genus of shrubs that includes many threatened species, are associated with variation in seed and seedling traits that might limit the regeneration performance of obligate seeders in fire-prone systems. We experimentally quantified seed dormancy and germination processes using fire-related heat treatments and evaluated seedling performance under drought stress. We also examined the association of seed size with other seed and seedling traits. Polyploids had bigger seeds, a faster germination rate and larger and taller seedlings than diploids. There was a lack of any clear relationship between range size and seed or seedling traits. The ploidy effects observed for many traits are likely to be indirect and associated with the underlying seed size differences. These findings indicate that there is a higher potential competitive advantage in polyploid than diploid Pomaderris during regeneration, a critical stage in the post-fire environment. This insight to the regeneration phase may need to be considered when planning and prioritising management of threatened species.

2022 ◽  
Martin Vojík ◽  
Martina Kadlecová ◽  
Josef Kutlvašr ◽  
Jan Pergl ◽  
Kateřina Berchová Bímová

Abstract This paper describes germination and cytological variability in two popular ornamental and potentially invasive species, lamb’s ear Stachys byzantina and rose campion Lychnis coronaria. Both xerophytic species have the potential to invade natural habitats across Europe and create viable naturalised populations, with subsequent impacts on native vegetation. To assess the species’ invasiveness, seeds were collected from naturalised populations and germination rate recorded under different temperature regimes. Flow cytometry, used to record cytological variability, indicated that all populations of both species were cytologically homogeneous. Germination success, a key spreading factor in both species, was significantly influenced by temperature, with final germination of L. coronaria being extremely high at temperatures > 15/10 °C (98.5%) and extremely low at temperatures < 10/5 °C (2.9%). In comparison, final germination in S. byzantina highest at 22/15 °C (55.6%), reducing to 40.3% at 15/10 °C and just 0.3% at temperatures < 10/5 °C. No significant differences in germination rate were observed between escaping and non-escaping populations, though there were differences between particular populations. Our results indicate germination temperature limits between species consistent with sizes of primary distribution and distance between primary and secondary distribution borders. However, the observed germination rates allow for successful generative reproduction of both species over their secondary distribution areas, suggesting that these species are likely to become invasive species of European grasslands soon.

Ying Ki Law ◽  
Calvin Lee ◽  
Chun Chiu Pang ◽  
Billy Hau ◽  
Jin Wu

Landslides are common in tropical and subtropical regions with hilly terrains and heavy rainstorms, which cause significant economic, ecological, and social impacts. Natural forest succession is usually slow on landslide scars due to poor soil structure and the lack of seeds of woody plant seeds, and often comes with a higher risk of repeated landslide. Ecological forest restoration has recently been suggested as an effective alternative to restore the exposed landslide scars, however, a comprehensive study to identify effective landslide restoration strategies remains lacking, particularly associated with seed treatment methods and species selection. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of different seed coating treatments of both pioneer and later successional tree species of different seed sizes on seed germination in a one-year study on three landslides in Hong Kong. Our results show that bare seeds had germination rates of 17 to 67% across all selected species (n=7). Biochar-dominant seed coating formulation boosted an additional 9.33 (SE= 0.04) in seed germination rate, while the clay-dominant seed coating formulation did not show significant effect on germination. Our results also show that medium and large-seeded non-pioneer species have significantly higher germination rates than pioneer species. These results collectively suggest that direct seeding using a biochar seed coat is a manageable and useful method to enhance tree seed germination—an essential first step to restore the forests after landslide disturbances in Hong Kong, with potential to be extended to other humid tropical and subtropical forests.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Lu-Lu Yu ◽  
Cui-Jiao Liu ◽  
Ye Peng ◽  
Zheng-Quan He ◽  
Fei Xu

Abstract Background Cyanide is a natural metabolite that exists widely in plants, and it is speculated to be involved in the regulation of various growth and development processes of plants in addition to being regarded as toxic waste. Previous studies have shown that exogenous cyanide treatment helps to improve seed germination, but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Alisa Craig) was used as the material, and the effects of cyanide pretreatment at different concentrations on tomato seed germination were investigated. Results The results showed that exogenous application of a lower concentration of cyanide (10 μmol/L KCN) for 12 h strongly increased the tomato seed germination rate. RNA-Seq showed that compared with the control, a total of 15,418 differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) were obtained after pretreatment with KCN for 12 h, and in the next 12 h, a total of 13,425 differentially expressed genes (P<0.05) were regulated. GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that exogenous KCN pretreatment was involved in regulating the expression (mainly downregulation) of seed storage proteins, thereby accelerating the degradation of stored proteins for seed germination. In addition, KCN pretreatment was also involved in stimulating glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Notably, it is shown that KCN acted on the regulation of plant hormone biosynthesis and perception, i.e., down-regulated the gene expression of ABA biosynthesis and signal transduction, but up-regulated the expression of genes related to GA biosynthesis and response. Consistent with this, plant hormone measurements confirmed that the levels of ABA were reduced, but GA levels were induced after pretreatment with KCN. Conclusion These findings provide new insights into the regulation of seed germination by cyanide, that is cyanide-mediated seed germination occurs in a time- and dose-dependent manner, and is related to the mobilization of energy metabolism and the regulation of some plant hormone signals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kinga Dziurka ◽  
Michał Dziurka ◽  
Ewa Muszyńska ◽  
Ilona Czyczyło-Mysza ◽  
Marzena Warchoł ◽  

AbstractA critical step in the production of doubled haploids is a conversion of the haploid embryos into plants. Our study aimed to recognize the reasons for the low germination rate of Avena sativa haploid embryos obtained by distant crossing with maize. Oat cultivars of ‘Krezus’ and ‘Akt’ were investigated regarding embryo anatomy, the endogenous phytohormone profiles, and antioxidant capacity. The zygotic embryos of oat were used as a reference. It was found that twenty-one days old haploid embryos were smaller and had a less advanced structure than zygotic ones. Morphology and anatomy modifications of haploid embryos were accompanied by extremely low levels of endogenous auxins. Higher levels of cytokinins, as well as tenfold higher cytokinin to auxin ratio in haploid than in zygotic embryos, may suggest an earlier stage of development of these former. Individual gibberellins reached higher values in ‘Akt’ haploid embryos than in the respective zygotic ones, while the differences in both types of ‘Krezus’ embryos were not noticed. Additionally to the hormonal regulation of haploid embryogenesis, the poor germination of oat haploid embryos can be a result of the overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and therefore higher levels of low molecular weight antioxidants and stress hormones.

Liangzi Cao ◽  
Shukun Jiang ◽  
Guohua Ding ◽  
Tongtong Wang ◽  
Liangming Bai ◽  

AbstractThe cold tolerance of germinating direct-sown rice (Oryza sativa L.) has an increased rate of emergence, which ensures vigorous seedling growth. Research on QTL localization for cold tolerance at the germination stage can assist in molecular marker-assisted selection and enhance breeding efficiency. In this study, 94 populations of recombinant self-incompatible lines from Heigu and Ha 9366 were selected to investigate germination rates at low temperatures. It was found that two QTL loci (qLTG-3 and qLTG-12) were located at different germination times on chromosomes 3 and 12, respectively. The two QTLs at three different germination times, located using QTL, accounted for 21.3–25.9% of the phenotypic variation. Moreover, a reciprocal effect was detected between the two QTLs. The double QTLs increased the germination rate by 22–27% in this population. Additionally, qLTG-12 improved cold tolerance at the seedling stage. The results of this study might provide the materials and molecular markers for future molecular marker-assisted breeding for cold tolerance at the germination stage.

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