two populations
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
M. G. Barbosa ◽  
S. A. Souza ◽  
T. P. P. André ◽  
A. D. S. Pontes ◽  
C. S. Teixeira ◽  

Abstract The possible interference of resistant pest’s populations to insecticides in natural enemies in the action thas not been clarified yet. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) performance on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) eggs with resistance frequency to the Metaflumizone over six generations of product exposure. Egg cards (2.0 x 7.0 cm) containing eggs from two populations of S. frugiperda, (resistant to Metaflumizone and the other susceptible), were exposed to T. pretiosum females for 24 hours in free-choice and no-choice testing in three generations (G1, G4, and G6). A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replications, each consisting of an egg card (experimental unit) containing 20 eggs. The parameters evaluated were: parasitism (%), emergence (%), sex ratio, number of emerged parasitoids per egg and males/females longevity. ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤ 0.05) were applied on the results. Results showed a reduction in parasitism [41.0% (G1) and 28.4% (G4)], egg emergence (17.5%) and parasitoids/egg [16.2 (G4) and 17.2 (G6)] in eggs originating from the population with resistance frequency. Females emerging from G6 populations eggs without exposure to Metaflumizone had greater longevity (3.5 days more) than the resistant population. The sex ratio and male longevity were not affected. The results indicate a reduction in T. pretiosum activity if S. frugiperda populations have some frequency of resistance to Metaflumizone.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261928
Takuya Aikawa ◽  
Noritoshi Maehara ◽  
Yu Ichihara ◽  
Hayato Masuya ◽  
Katsunori Nakamura ◽  

Wolbachia are obligatory endosymbiotic α-proteobacteria found in many arthropods. They are maternally inherited, and can induce reproductive alterations in the hosts. Despite considerable recent progress in studies on the associations between Wolbachia and various taxonomic groups of insects, none of the researches have revealed the effects of Wolbachia on longicorn beetles as the host insect. Acalolepta fraudatrix is a forest longicorn beetle that is distributed in East Asia. In this study, the relationship between Wolbachia and A. fraudatrix was investigated. Out of two populations of A. fraudatrix screened for Wolbachia using the genes ftsZ, wsp, and 16S rRNA, only one of the populations showed detection of all three genes indicating the presence of Wolbachia. Electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization also confirmed that the A. fraudatrix population was infected with Wolbachia. Sequencing the wsp genes derived from single insects revealed that two strains of Wolbachia coexisted in the insects based on the detection of two different sequences of the wsp gene. We designated these strains as wFra1 and wFra2. The bacterial titers of wFra1 were nearly 2-fold and 3-fold higher than wFra2 in the testes and ovaries, respectively. The two strains of Wolbachia in the insects were completely eliminated by rearing the insects on artificial diets containing 1% concentration of tetracycline for 1 generation. Reciprocal crosses between Wolbachia-infected and Wolbachia-uninfected A. fraudatrix demonstrated that only eggs produced by the crosses between Wolbachia-infected males and Wolbachia-uninfected females did not hatch, indicating that Wolbachia infecting A. fraudatrix causes cytoplasmic incompatibility in the host insect. This is the first report showing the effect of Wolbachia on reproductive function in a longicorn beetle, A. fraudatrix.

2022 ◽  
Sanjat Kanjilal ◽  
Sujata Chalise ◽  
Adnan Shami Shah ◽  
Chi-An Cheng ◽  
Yasmeen Senussi ◽  

The emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has motivated a re-evaluation of the test characteristics for lateral flow immunochromatographic assays (LFIAs), commonly referred to as rapid antigen tests. To address this need, we evaluated the analytic sensitivity of one of the most widely used LFIAs in the US market, the Abbott BinaxNOW COVID-19 Ag At-Home Card using 32 samples of Omicron and 30 samples of the Delta variant. Samples were chosen to intentionally over-represent the range of viral loads where differences are most likely to appear. We found no changes in the analytic sensitivity of the BinaxNOW assay by variant even after controlling for variation in cycle threshold values in the two populations. Similar to prior studies, the sensitivity of the assay is highly dependent on the amount of virus present in the sample. While the analytic sensitivity of the BinaxNOW LFIA remains intact versus the Omicron variant, its clinical sensitivity is influenced by the interaction between viral replication, the dynamics of tissue tropism and the timing of sampling. Further research is necessary to optimally adapt current testing strategies to robustly detect early infection by the Omicron variant to prevent transmission.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 235
Roxana Maria Wasnick ◽  
Irina Shalashova ◽  
Jochen Wilhelm ◽  
Ali Khadim ◽  
Nicolai Schmidt ◽  

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fatal degenerative lung disease of unknown etiology. Although in its final stages it implicates, in a reactive manner, all lung cell types, the initial damage involves the alveolar epithelial compartment, in particular the alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s). AEC2s serve dual progenitor and surfactant secreting functions, both of which are deeply impacted in IPF. Thus, we hypothesize that the size of the surfactant processing compartment, as measured by LysoTracker incorporation, allows the identification of different epithelial states in the IPF lung. Flow cytometry analysis of epithelial LysoTracker incorporation delineates two populations (Lysohigh and Lysolow) of AEC2s that behave in a compensatory manner during bleomycin injury and in the donor/IPF lung. Employing flow cytometry and transcriptomic analysis of cells isolated from donor and IPF lungs, we demonstrate that the Lysohigh population expresses all classical AEC2 markers and is drastically diminished in IPF. The Lysolow population, which is increased in proportion in IPF, co-expressed AEC2 and basal cell markers, resembling the phenotype of the previously identified intermediate AEC2 population in the IPF lung. In that regard, we provide an in-depth flow-cytometry characterization of LysoTracker uptake, HTII-280, proSP-C, mature SP-B, NGFR, KRT5, and CD24 expression in human lung epithelial cells. Combining functional analysis with extracellular and intracellular marker expression and transcriptomic analysis, we advance the current understanding of epithelial cell behavior and fate in lung fibrosis.

Handan Karaoglu

The tadpoles of four amphibian species, namely the Marsh Frog (Pelophylax ridibundus), the Iranian Long-Legged Frog (Rana macrocnemis), the Caucasian Parsley Frog (Pelodytes caucasicus) and the Variable Green Toad (Bufotes variabilis), were exposed to acute concentrations (0 to 500 mg/L) of ammonium nitrate to assess the lethal effects (larval growth, abnormalities, mortality, and LC50 values). Eggs of each species were obtained from clean and polluted habitats in the same region and the tadpoles for experiments were provided from those eggs in the laboratory conditions. Although there was some variability between different populations of the same species or between different species in the observed effects, acute levels of ammonium nitrate caused decreased growth rate and increased abnormalities and mortality in general. Among the 4 amphibian species, the Variable Green Toad was the most damaged one in terms of growth reduction (on average 77-83%), and abnormality rates, and the most damaged one in terms of mortality rates was the Marsh Frog (on average 61-72%). Additionally, the species with the lowest concentration of ammonium nitrate, which killed half of its population, was the Marsh Frog. LC50 values for two populations of Marsh Frog were 37 and 59 mg/L. As a result of our research, it was determined that the acute fertilizer levels caused by agricultural activities in the region had very important harmful effects for all the species we examined. In this context, it can be said that very important environmental and biodiversity problems may occur if certain precautions are not taken regarding the use of the fertilizers and if the awareness of the farmers using these fertilizers cannot be raised.

Insects ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Jintian Xiao ◽  
Jiaqi Liu ◽  
Luyao Ma ◽  
Xiangyu Hao ◽  
Ruitao Yu ◽  

In this study, complete mitochondrial genomes of nine species representing three tribes in the subfamily Pyrginae sensu lato were newly sequenced. The mitogenomes are closed double-stranded circular molecules, with the length ranging from 15,232 bp to 15,559 bp, which all encode 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region. The orientation and gene order of these nine mitogenomes are identical to the inferred ancestral arrangement of insects. All PCGs exhibit the typical start codon ATN except for cox1 (using CGA) and cox2 (using TTG) in Mooreana trichoneura. Most of the PCGs terminate with a TAA stop codon, while cox1, cox2, nad4, and nad5 end with the incomplete codon single T. For the different datasets, we found that the one comprising all 37 genes of the mitogenome produced the highest nodal support, indicating that the inclusion of RNAs improves the phylogenetic signal. This study re-confirmed the status of Capila, Pseudocoladenia, and Sarangesa; namely, Capila belongs to the tribe Tagiadini, and Pseudocoladenia and Sarangesa to the tribe Celaenorrhini. Diagnostic characters distinguishing the two tribes, the length of the forewing cell and labial palpi, are no longer significant. Two populations of Pseudocoladenia dan fabia from China and Myanmar and P. dan dhyana from Thailand are confirmed as conspecific.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Bohu Pan ◽  
Luyao Ren ◽  
Vitor Onuchic ◽  
Meijian Guan ◽  
Rebecca Kusko ◽  

Abstract Background Reproducible detection of inherited variants with whole genome sequencing (WGS) is vital for the implementation of precision medicine and is a complicated process in which each step affects variant call quality. Systematically assessing reproducibility of inherited variants with WGS and impact of each step in the process is needed for understanding and improving quality of inherited variants from WGS. Results To dissect the impact of factors involved in detection of inherited variants with WGS, we sequence triplicates of eight DNA samples representing two populations on three short-read sequencing platforms using three library kits in six labs and call variants with 56 combinations of aligners and callers. We find that bioinformatics pipelines (callers and aligners) have a larger impact on variant reproducibility than WGS platform or library preparation. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), particularly outside difficult-to-map regions, are more reproducible than small insertions and deletions (indels), which are least reproducible when > 5 bp. Increasing sequencing coverage improves indel reproducibility but has limited impact on SNVs above 30×. Conclusions Our findings highlight sources of variability in variant detection and the need for improvement of bioinformatics pipelines in the era of precision medicine with WGS.

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