kinetic model
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Fuel ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 313 ◽  
pp. 123007
Panagiota Tsafrakidou ◽  
Georgios Manthos ◽  
Dimitris Zagklis ◽  
Julian Mema ◽  
Michael Kornaros

2022 ◽  
Vol 238 ◽  
pp. 111922
Lingfeng Dai ◽  
Lixin Lu ◽  
Chun Zou ◽  
Qianjin Lin ◽  
Wenxiang Xia ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 321 ◽  
pp. 126336
Ariel Berrio ◽  
Jorge I. Tobón ◽  
A.G. De la Torre

2022 ◽  
Vol 236 ◽  
pp. 111795
Donald R. Burgess ◽  
Robert R. Burrell ◽  
Valeri I. Babushok ◽  
Jeffrey A. Manion ◽  
Michael J. Hegetschweiler ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 56 ◽  
pp. 101862
J. Arturo Mendoza-Nieto ◽  
Héctor Martínez-Hernández ◽  
Heriberto Pfeiffer ◽  
J. Francisco Gómez-García

2022 ◽  
Vol 166 ◽  
pp. 108745
M.A. Polo-Labarrios ◽  
F.A. Godínez ◽  
S. Quezada-García

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 596
Javier Torres-Liñán ◽  
Ramiro Ruiz-Rosas ◽  
Juana María Rosas ◽  
José Rodríguez-Mirasol ◽  
Tomás Cordero

A Zr-loaded P-containing biomass-derived activated carbon (ACPZr) has been tested for methanol dehydration between 450 and 550 °C. At earlier stages, methanol conversion was complete, and the reaction product was mainly dimethyl ether (DME), although coke, methane, hydrogen and CO were also observed to a lesser extent. The catalyst was slowly deactivated with time-on-stream (TOS), but maintained a high selectivity to DME (>80%), with a higher yield to this product than 20% for more than 24 h at 500 °C. A kinetic model was developed for methanol dehydration reaction, which included the effect of the inhibition of water and the deactivation of the catalyst by coke. The study of stoichiometric rates pointed out that coke could be produced through a formaldehyde intermediate, which might, alternatively, decompose into CO and H2. On the other hand, the presence of 10% water in the feed did not affect the rate of coke formation, but produced a reduction of 50% in the DME yield, suggesting a reversible competitive adsorption of water. A Langmuir–Hinshelwood reaction mechanism was used to develop a kinetic model that considered the deactivation of the catalyst. Activation energy values of 65 and 51 kJ/mol were obtained for DME and methane production in the temperature range from 450 °C to 550 °C. On the other hand, coke formation as a function of time on stream (TOS) was also modelled and used as the input for the deactivation function of the model, which allowed for the successful prediction of the DME, CH4 and CO yields in the whole evaluated TOS interval.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 785
Enze Zhu ◽  
Zhipeng Zhang ◽  
Hong Nie

The release load of holdback bar will affect the safety of catapult-assisted takeoff of carrier-based aircraft, and the accurate control of releasing the load will ensure success. The magnitude and the control accuracy of release load are important parameters which impact the takeoff performance, therefore unstable release load and insufficient release precision are the main factors affecting the takeoff safety. In this paper, mechanical models of the carrier-based aircraft in the catapult-assisted takeoff tensioning state and gliding state after release are established based on multi-body dynamics, contact mechanics and tribological theory, and the influence of the release load of the holdback bar on the catapult-assisted takeoff performance is analyzed. Furthermore, a kinetic model of the holdback bar device is established, and the kinetic characteristics of the release process of the holdback bar are studied. Based on the kinetic model and friction model of the holdback bar, the influencing factors of the sensitivity of the holdback bar release load are analyzed and the structural parameters are optimized. The results show that the released load decreases slowly with the increase of the contact surface angle of the holdback bar structure and increases rapidly when that angle reaches the critical value; besides, the release load increases slowly with the increase of the friction coefficient of the contact surface and increases faster when the critical friction coefficient is reached.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 498
Emin Semih Perdahcıoğlu ◽  
Hubert J. M. Geijselaers

The retained austenite (RA) in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) grades, such as dual-phase (DP) steels, plays an important role on their formability. Thanks to the transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) effect that occurs during the mechanically induced transformation of RA into martensite, additional ductility is obtained. Martensite has a higher flow stress than austenite; hence, the transformation results in an apparent hardening, which is beneficial for the stability of deformation. The stability of RA at a given temperature strongly depends on its carbon content, which, in AHSS, is not uniform but distributed. The aim of this study is to build a model that predicts the transformation as well as TRIP in a DP steel grade with RA. A physics-based kinetic model is presented that captures the transformation of retained austenite based on the thermodynamic driving force of the applied stress. A direct analytical estimate of transformation plasticity is provided, which is consistent with the kinetic model. Transformation kinetics is incorporated in a self-consistent, mean-field homogenization-based constitutive model. Finally, an indication of the effect of transformation of retained austenite on formability is given.

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