topographic factors
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PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12804
Author(s):  
Yuanhe Yu ◽  
Xingqi Sun ◽  
Jinliang Wang ◽  
Jianpeng Zhang

Water yield is an ecosystem service that is vital to not only human life, but also sustainable development of the social economy and ecosystem. This study used annual average precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, plant available water content, soil depth, biophysical parameters, Zhang parameter, and land use/land cover (LULC) as input data for the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Service Tradeoffs (InVEST) model to estimate the water yield of Shangri-La City from 1974 to 2015. The spatiotemporal variations and associated factors (precipitation, evapotranspiration, LULC, and topographic factors) in water yield ecosystem services were then analyzed. The result showed that: (1) The water yield of Shangri-La City decreases from north and south to the center and showed a temporal trend from 1974 to 2015 of an initial decrease followed by an increase. Areas of higher average water yield were mainly in Hutiaoxia Town, Jinjiang Town, and Shangjiang Township. (2) Areas of importance for water yield in the study area which need to be assigned priority protection were mainly concentrated in the west of Jiantang Town, in central Xiaozhongdian Town, in central Gezan Township, in northwestern Dongwang Township, and in Hutiaoxia Town. (3) Water yield was affected by precipitation, evapotranspiration, vegetation type, and topographic factors. Water yield was positively and negatively correlated with precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, respectively. The average water yield of shrubs exceeded that of meadows and forests. Terrain factors indirectly affected the ecosystem service functions of water yield by affecting precipitation and vegetation types. The model used in this study can provide references for relevant research in similar climatic conditions.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Author(s):  
Chunya Wang ◽  
Jinniu Wang ◽  
Niyati Naudiyal ◽  
Ning Wu ◽  
Xia Cui ◽  
...  

Topographic factors are critical for influencing vegetation distribution patterns, and studying the interactions between them can enhance our understanding of future vegetation dynamics. We used the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (MODIS NDVI) image dataset (2000–2019), combined with the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and vegetation type data for trend analysis, and explored NDVI variation and its relationship with topographic factors through an integrated geographically-weighted model in the Three Parallel Rivers Region (TPRR) of southeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) in the past 20 years. Our results indicated that there was no significant increase of NDVI in the entire basin between 2000–2019, except for the Lancang River basin. In the year 2004, abrupt changes in NDVI were observed across the entire basin and each sub-basin. During 2000–2019, the mean NDVI value of the whole basin increased initially and then decreased with the increasing elevation. However, it changed marginally with variations in slope and aspect. We observed a distinct spatial heterogeneity in vegetation patterns with elevation, with higher NDVI in the southern regions NDVI than those in the north as a whole. Most of the vegetation cover was concentrated in the slope range of 8~35°, with no significant difference in distribution except flat land. Furthermore, from 2000 to 2019, the vegetation cover in the TPRR showed an improving trend with the changes of various topographic factors, with the largest improvement area (36.10%) in the slightly improved category. The improved region was mainly distributed in the source area of the Jinsha River basin and the southern part of the whole basin. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis showed that elevation was negatively correlated with NDVI trends in most areas, especially in the middle reaches of Nujiang River basin and Jinsha River basin, where the influence of slope and aspect on NDVI change was considerably much smaller than elevation. Our results confirmed the importance of topographic factors on vegetation growth processes and have implications for understanding the sustainable development of mountain ecosystems.


Author(s):  
Chunya Wang ◽  
Jinniu Wang ◽  
Niyati Naudiyal ◽  
Ning Wu ◽  
Xia Cui ◽  
...  

Topographic factors are recognized as one of the key factors influencing vegetation distribution patterns, and studying the interactions between them can contribute to enhancing our understanding of future vegetation dynamics. We used the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (MODIS NDVI) image dataset (2000-2019), combined with Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and vegetation type data for trend analysis, and explored NDVI variation and its relationship with topographic factors through an integrated geographically-weighted model in the Three Parallel Rivers Region (TPRR) of southeastern Tibetan plateau in the past 20 years. Our results indicated that there was no significant increase of NDVI in the entire basin between 2000-2019, except for the Lancang River basin. In the year 2004, abrupt changes in NDVI were observed across the whole basin and each sub-basin. During 2000-2019, the mean NDVI value of the whole basin increased initially and then decreased with the increasing elevation. However, it changed marginally with changes in slope and aspect. We observed a distinct spatial heterogeneity in vegetation patterns with elevation, with vegetation in the southern regions showing higher NDVI than the north as a whole. Most of the vegetation cover was concentrated in the slope range of 8~35°, with no significant difference in distribution except flat-land. Furthermore, from 2000 to 2019, the vegetation cover in the TPRR showed an improving trend with the changes of various topographic factors, with the largest improvement area (36.10%) in the slightly improved category. The improved region was mainly distributed in the source area of the Jinsha River basin and the southern part of the whole basin. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis showed that elevation was negatively correlated with NDVI trends in most areas, especially in the middle reaches of Nujiang River basin and Jinsha River basin, where the influence of slope and aspect on NDVI change was considerably much smaller than elevation.


Author(s):  
Chunya Wang ◽  
Jinniu Wang ◽  
Niyati Naudiyal ◽  
Ning Wu ◽  
Xia Cui ◽  
...  

Topographic factors are recognized as one of the key factors influencing vegetation distribution patterns, and studying the interactions between them can contribute to enhancing our understanding of future vegetation dynamics. We used the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (MODIS NDVI) image dataset (2000-2019), combined with Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and vegetation type data for trend analysis, and explored NDVI variation and its relationship with topographic factors through an integrated geographically-weighted model in the Three Parallel Rivers Region (TPRR) of southeastern Tibetan plateau in the past 20 years. Our results indicated that there was no significant increase of NDVI in the entire basin between 2000-2019, except for the Lancang River basin. In the year 2004, abrupt changes in NDVI were observed across the whole basin and each sub-basin. During 2000-2019, the mean NDVI value of the whole basin increased initially and then decreased with the increasing elevation. However, it changed marginally with changes in slope and aspect. We observed a distinct spatial heterogeneity in vegetation patterns with elevation, with vegetation in the southern regions showing higher NDVI than the north as a whole. Most of the vegetation cover was concentrated in the slope range of 8~35°, with no significant difference in distribution except flat-land. Furthermore, from 2000 to 2019, the vegetation cover in the TPRR showed an improving trend with the changes of various topographic factors, with the largest improvement area (36.10%) in the slightly improved category. The improved region was mainly distributed in the source area of the Jinsha River basin and the southern part of the whole basin. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis showed that elevation was negatively correlated with NDVI trends in most areas, especially in the middle reaches of Nujiang River basin and Jinsha River basin, where the influence of slope and aspect on NDVI change was considerably much smaller than elevation.


Author(s):  
Soufiane Maimouni ◽  
Lamia Daghor ◽  
Mostafa Oukassou ◽  
Saida El Moutaki ◽  
Rachid Lhissou

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 5652
Author(s):  
Jae-Yeong Lee ◽  
Ji-Sung Kim

As a result of rapid urbanization and population movement, flooding in urban areas has become one of the most common types of natural disaster, causing huge losses of both life and property. To mitigate and prevent the damage caused by the recent increase in floods, a number of measures are required, such as installing flood prevention facilities, or specially managing areas vulnerable to flooding. In this study, we presented a technique for determining areas susceptible to flooding using hydrological-topographic characteristics for the purpose of managing flood vulnerable areas. To begin, we collected digital topographic maps and stormwater drainage system data regarding the study area. Using the collected data, surface, locational, and resistant factors were analyzed. In addition, the maximum 1-h rainfall data were collected as an inducing factor and assigned to all grids through spatial interpolation. Next, a logistic regression analysis was performed by inputting hydrological-topographic factors and historical inundation trace maps for each grid as independent and dependent variables, respectively, through which a model for calculating the flood vulnerability of the study area was established. The performance of the model was evaluated by analyzing the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve of flood vulnerability and inundation trace maps, and it was found to be improved when the rainfall that changes according to flood events was also considered. The method presented in this study can be used not only to reasonably and efficiently select target sites for flood prevention facilities, but also to pre-detect areas vulnerable to flooding by using real-time rainfall forecasting.


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