This research deals with study of enhanced liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and humidity sensing properties of Sn-doped NiO pellets synthesized by chemical precipitation route. XRD, FTIR, SEM, and UV–Vis studies were employed to understand the effect of Sn doping on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the NiO nanoparticles. XRD results revealed that doping of tin in NiO had a significant impact on the crystallite size, peak intensity, strain, lattice parameter, etc. The calculated crystallite size of pure and 3 mol% doped NiO was 33.2 nm and 13.3 nm, respectively. SEM micrographs revealed that the structure of the samples was irregular spheres and non-homogeneous. The dependence of LPG sensing properties on the structural and surface morphological properties has also been studied. The maximum response of 30.46% to 2.0 vol% of LPG was observed at room temperature (300 K). The same sample also shows high humidity sensing response of 87.11% towards 90% RH.
The detection of hazardous gases at different concentration levels at low and room temperature is still an actual and challenging task. In this paper, Al-doped ZnO thin films are synthesized by the electrochemical deposition method on the gold electrodes of AT-cut quartz resonators, vibrating at 10 MHz. The average roughness, surface morphology and gas sensing properties are investigated. The average roughness of Al-doped ZnO layers strongly depends on the amount of the doping agent Al2(SO4)3 added to the solution. The structural dependence of these films with varying Al concentrations is evident from the scanning electron microscopy images. The sensing properties to ethanol and ammonia analytes were tested in the range of 0–12,800 ppm. In the analysis of the sensitivity to ammonia, a dependence on the concentration of the added Al2(SO4)3 in the electrochemically deposited layers is also observed, as the most sensitive layer is at 3 × 10−5 M. The sensitivity and the detection limit in case of ammonia are, respectively, 0.03 Hz/ppm and 100 ppm for the optimal doping concentration. The sensitivity depends on the active surface area of the layers, with those with a more developed surface being more sensitive. Al-doped ZnO layers showed a good long-term stability and reproducibility towards ammonia and ethanol gases. In the case of ethanol, the sensitivity is an order lower than that for ammonia, as those deposited with Al2(SO4)3 do not practically react to ethanol.
ZnO quantum dots sensitized SnO2 porous nanowires were fabricated and designed for UV excitation gas sensor. The ZnO/SnO2 composite (SZQ1%) with the molar proportion of 1:100 exhibits excellent sensing properties to NO2 gas under UV irradiation at 40oC. The humidity stability of SZQ1% was also measured and discussed by DC reversed circuit and complex impedance curves. The gas sensing mechanism is well discussed and illustrated to the ZnO quantum dots sensitized and the increased photo-generated carriers under UV irradiation.