Fiction Reading and Empathy Capacity of Selected Filipino Adolescents and Young Adults

2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-34
Kathleen Denise H. Ubaldo ◽  
Marison Felicidad R. Dy

This study aimed to discover if adolescents’ and young adults’ empathy capacity is higher when they engage more in fiction reading. A total of 301 students, aged 16-22, completed a self-administered questionnaire. More than half (56%) of the respondents consider reading as a hobby with books as the preferred reading material. Around 38% have moderate fiction reading scores and around 77% have high empathy capacity scores. Findings showed that the older the respondent is, the less likely they would read fiction and the lower their empathy level. Females are more likely to read fiction and are more empathic than males. Also, results revealed that the more the individual reads fiction, the more empathic they can become. Home and school interventions can be created to increase opportunities and desire for reading fiction and enhancing empathy capacity.

2020 ◽  
Adam Viera ◽  
Daniel J Bromberg ◽  
Shannon Whittaker ◽  
Bryan M Refsland ◽  
Milena Stanojlović ◽  

Abstract The volatile opioid epidemic is associated with higher levels of opioid use disorder (OUD) and negative health outcomes in adolescents and young adults. Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) demonstrate the best evidence for treating OUD. Adherence to and retention in MOUD, defined as continuous engagement in treatment, among adolescents and young adults, however, is incompletely understood. We examined the state of the literature regarding the association of age with adherence to and retention in MOUD using methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone among persons aged 10–24 years, along with related facilitators and barriers. All studies of MOUD were searched for that examined adherence, retention, or related concepts as an outcome variable and included adolescents or young adults. Search criteria generated 10,229 records; after removing duplicates and screening titles and abstracts, 587 studies were identified for full-text review. Ultimately, 52 articles met inclusion criteria for abstraction and 17 were selected for qualitative coding and analysis. Younger age was consistently associated with shorter retention, although the overall quality of included studies was low. Several factors at the individual, interpersonal, and institutional levels, such as concurrent substance use, MOUD adherence, family conflict, and MOUD dosage and flexibility, appeared to have roles in MOUD retention among adolescents and young adults. Ways MOUD providers can tailor treatment to increase retention of adolescents and young adults are highlighted, as is the need for more research explaining MOUD adherence and retention disparities in this age group.

2019 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 15-20
Fizza Nasim ◽  
Saira Yousaf ◽  
Rozina Arshad ◽  
Bilal Bin Younis ◽  
Hafiza Rabia Naeem

Background: The history of smoking tobacco is primitive and dates back to as early as 5000 BC. In the last century this has changed to different forms like cigarettes, filtered cigarettes, self-made cigarettes, tobacco in leaf (beery), hukka, sheesha and pipe. Objectives: To explore tobacco smoking practices in young adults and the factors that influences them to initiate or quit smoking. Methods: It was cross sectional study based on a self-based on a self-administered questionnaire with a sample size of 486. Study subjects were young adults. The age of participants was between 17-35 years. Data was collected after taking an informed consent and the individual confidentially was maintained. A self- administered questionnaire was given where question were related to their socio-demographic characteristics and smoking   behavior. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Of the subjects who were interviewed almost 62% were smokers. Significant number of the people did not remember the age of smoking initiation. 97% of the subjects smoked manufactured cigarettes. 49.6% of smokers had to visit a physician in last 12 months but only 40% of them were counseled regarding smoking hazards and smoking cessation. 61.6% of people had not seen any information regarding hazards of smoking on any kind of media, 27.5% saw them on electronic media and 2.6% noticed them on Bill board. Conclusion: The main determinants of regular smoking among the university students were male sex, lower education level and having friends who smoke. This calls for the implementation of sex and age specific anti-smoking policies. By assessing the smoking behavior in young adults, programs and policies can be designed with an aim to reduce smoking rates among the youth of our society.

2021 ◽  
pp. OP.21.00364
Kenji Kishimoto ◽  
Susumu Kunisawa ◽  
Kiyohide Fushimi ◽  
Yuichi Imanaka

PURPOSE: There has been limited information on the economic evaluation of children, adolescents, and young adults (AYAs) with cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate the individual and nationwide costs for cancer care during the first year after diagnosis among children and AYAs in Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated the direct health care costs for children (0-14 years old) and AYAs (15-29 years old) from the perspective of the public payer. Children and AYAs with newly diagnosed cancer between April 2016 and March 2018 were identified from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination Study Group database to calculate the cost per patient. The nationwide cost was estimated by the bottom-up approach, using stratification by age group, sex, and cancer classification, based on Population Estimates and Cancer Statistics data. RESULTS: A total of 2,939 children and 5,512 AYAs were identified. The median 1-year cost per patient after diagnosis was 2,832,840 (interquartile range, 927,490-9,222,780) JPY (in USD: median, 28,047; interquartile range, 9,183-91,310). The median 1-year cost per patient was higher in children than in AYAs in all cancer classifications. Leukemia, treatment in cancer centers, and early death as well as longer hospital stay were identified to have an impact on 1-year cost per patient after diagnosis. The 1-year nationwide cost after diagnosis was estimated as 34.83 × 109 JPY (344.8 × 106 USD). CONCLUSION: We showed that cancer treatments for both children and AYAs were highly cost-intensive in Japan. Our results suggest the need for further financial and policy evaluation.

Sports ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 26 ◽  
Leon Klos ◽  
Katharina Feil ◽  
Tanja Eberhardt ◽  
Darko Jekauc

Interventions to promote physical activity (PA) in children, adolescents and young adults based on social-cognitive theories often fail to increase PA. In recent years, affect-based approaches have gained interest, but the current state of research is not sufficiently reported. Therefore, a systematic review about the influence of interventions to promote positive affect and PA enjoyment and PA in children, adolescents and young adults was conducted. Literature searches were carried out including studies published between September 2009 and April 2019. Intervention studies targeting healthy children, adolescents or young adults and measuring enjoyment and PA were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria, including five group-based PA interventions, three multi-component school interventions, two internet-based interventions and three exergaming interventions. Most studies use multiple components in their intervention. Group-based PA programs incorporating task-oriented teaching styles and opportunities for voluntary PA are most consistently associated with positive findings. This review shows moderate evidence of interventions for children, adolescents and young adults being effective in increasing enjoyment and PA. Besides physical education and comprehensive school interventions, heterogenous intervention designs limit the comparability of studies. Future research should focus on theory-based, multi-component interventions with mediator analyses.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (5) ◽  
pp. 19-24
Dulce M. Ochoa-Corral ◽  
Guadalupe Campos-Valdez ◽  
Alberto Gómez-Zarco ◽  
Alejandra Lima-Quezada

Self-esteem is an evaluation the individual makes about themself, being classified as positive or negative. To accomplish this, psychology has proposed, use valid and reliable measuring instruments in the Mexican population, since there is a primary need to understand the different levels of self-esteem in individuals. The objective of the study was composing a review of validated scales and psychological instruments in the Mexican population on Self-esteem in adolescents and young adults from 15 to 25 years old. To the Method, the collection of information was made through databases such as PUBMED, Redalyc, Google Academic, Scielo and Dialnet. The descriptors were Self-esteem, adolescence, youth, and instruments of psychological evaluation. 96 articles were found, which only 5 of them fulfill the criteria. The results reflect 5 scales and instruments that measure self-esteem in Mexican adolescents and young adults, the application of these instruments fluctuates from 14 to 51 years and presents a reliability >0.70. It is concluded that in Social Sciences and Psychology, the application of instruments provides objective measures for a variety of problems to deal with. For this reason, valid and reliable self-esteem scales in the Mexican population may smooth the progress of the selection depending on subscales or factors that the psychologist or researcher wants to address individually or in a group.

2020 ◽  
Nancy Tuck ◽  
Linda MacDonald Glenn

Individuals diagnosed with Conduct Disorder (CD) in childhood and adolescence are at risk for increasingly maladaptive and dangerous behaviors, which unchecked, can lead to Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) in adulthood. Children with CD, especially those with the Callous Unemotional subgroup qualifier (“limited prosocial emotions”/DSM-V), present with a more severe pattern of delinquency, aggression, and antisocial behavior, all markings of prodrome ASPD. Given this recognized diagnostic trajectory, with pathological course playing out tragically at the individual, familial, and societal level, and lack of effective remediation via current standards of care, we posit an alternate treatment approach; case-specific compulsory moral habilitation aimed at rectifying the undeveloped affective domain of adolescents and young adults suffering from these disorders. We begin with a brief historical overview of response to mental illness, review CD and ASPD diagnostic criteria and treatment limitations, and posit a unique neuro-habilitative approach that focuses on the absent affective moral development of these populations. Next, we invoke a public health safety argument to justify case-specific compulsory moral habilitation, discuss neurotechnologies to be considered in treatment, and conclude with ethical considerations and suggestions for further research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (2) ◽  
pp. 172-177
Tantri Analisawati Sudarsono ◽  
Dita Pratiwi Kusuma Wardani ◽  
Arif Mulyanto

The prevalence of allergies is increasing from year to year due to the modern lifestyle in society. The incidence of allergies was influenced by several factors, such as genetics, age, sex, diet, food type, and also environmental factors. Determination of IgE levels in adolescents and young adults is important because the incidence of allergy is highly reported in adolescents and young adults. This study was conducted to determine IgE levels in allergies among university students in Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. This observational study was conducted among diploma students of Medical Laboratory Technology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. The data of characteristic subjects were collected by a self-administered questionnaire whereas data of IgE levels were collected by serum samples and measured by ELISA. A total of 23 students (4.35 % male and 95.65% female) were included. Seafood allergy (25%) were the commonest allergy among the students. Only 9% of subjects have combination allergies. The highest of IgE levels were 365 IU/mL.

Marc Allroggen ◽  
Peter Rehmann ◽  
Eva Schürch ◽  
Carolyn C. Morf ◽  
Michael Kölch

Abstract.Narcissism is seen as a multidimensional construct that consists of two manifestations: grandiose and vulnerable narcissism. In order to define these two manifestations, their relationship to personality factors has increasingly become of interest. However, so far no studies have considered the relationship between different phenotypes of narcissism and personality factors in adolescents. Method: In a cross-sectional study, we examine a group of adolescents (n = 98; average age 16.77 years; 23.5 % female) with regard to the relationship between Big Five personality factors and pathological narcissism using self-report instruments. This group is compared to a group of young adults (n = 38; average age 19.69 years; 25.6 % female). Results: Grandiose narcissism is primarily related to low Agreeableness and Extraversion, vulnerable narcissism to Neuroticism. We do not find differences between adolescents and young adults concerning the relationship between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and personality traits. Discussion: Vulnerable and grandiose narcissism can be well differentiated in adolescents, and the pattern does not show substantial differences compared to young adults.

Crisis ◽  
2016 ◽  
Vol 37 (4) ◽  
pp. 265-270 ◽  
Meshan Lehmann ◽  
Matthew R. Hilimire ◽  
Lawrence H. Yang ◽  
Bruce G. Link ◽  
Jordan E. DeVylder

Abstract. Background: Self-esteem is a major contributor to risk for repeated suicide attempts. Prior research has shown that awareness of stigma is associated with reduced self-esteem among people with mental illness. No prior studies have examined the association between self-esteem and stereotype awareness among individuals with past suicide attempts. Aims: To understand the relationship between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among young adults who have and have not attempted suicide. Method: Computerized surveys were administered to college students (N = 637). Linear regression analyses were used to test associations between self-esteem and stereotype awareness, attempt history, and their interaction. Results: There was a significant stereotype awareness by attempt interaction (β = –.74, p = .006) in the regression analysis. The interaction was explained by a stronger negative association between stereotype awareness and self-esteem among individuals with past suicide attempts (β = –.50, p = .013) compared with those without attempts (β = –.09, p = .037). Conclusion: Stigma is associated with lower self-esteem within this high-functioning sample of young adults with histories of suicide attempts. Alleviating the impact of stigma at the individual (clinical) or community (public health) levels may improve self-esteem among this high-risk population, which could potentially influence subsequent suicide risk.

Crisis ◽  
2009 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 115-119 ◽  
Stephanie De Munck ◽  
Gwendolyn Portzky ◽  
Kees Van Heeringen

Background: Notwithstanding the epidemiological studies indicating an increased risk of attempted suicide among adolescents and young adults, there is a scarcity of international studies that examine long-term epidemiological trends in rates and characteristics of this vulnerable group. Aims: This article describes the results of a 9-year monitoring study of suicide attempts in adolescents and young adults referred to the Accident and Emergency Department of the Gent University Hospital (Belgium). Methods: Between January 1996 and December 2004, trends, sociodemographic, and methodrelated characteristics of suicide attempts were assessed by a psychiatrist on data sheets. Results: Attempted suicide rates declined from 1996 to 2001 and then rose until 2004, but did not exceed previous rates. During the 9 years of monitoring, there was a preponderance of female suicide attempters, except for 1997. Rates of attempts and of fatal suicide were negatively correlated. Significantly more males than females deliberately injured themselves. Younger attempters, especially females, significantly more often poisoned themselves with analgesics. In nearly one in five attempts, alcohol was used in combination with other methods, and alcohol intake was more commonly observed in older suicide attempters. Nearly half of the adolescents were identified as repeaters. Conclusions: The results of this study warrant further monitoring of trends and characteristics of young suicide attempters.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document