light pollution
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2022 ◽  
Vol 294 ◽  
pp. 118628
Yu-xiang Xu ◽  
Yang Yu ◽  
Yan Huang ◽  
Yu-hui Wan ◽  
Pu-yu Su ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 191-217
Barry L. Johnson ◽  
Maureen Y. Lichtveld

Magdalena Sielachowska ◽  
Maciej Zajkowski

This article attempts to assess the light pollution of parking lots, using the proprietary measure-ment method with a drone. The main requirements, reflective features of parking lots and typical light curves of luminaires used in lighting this type of areas were presented. Calculations and simulations for various types of luminaires were performed, and then the obtained results were verified in real conditions. The main factors influencing the increase in light pollution were pre-sented and it was proved that it is possible to use the developed measurement method in order to assess the light pollution degree.

PeerJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
pp. e12669
Heraldo V. Norambuena ◽  
Reinaldo Rivera ◽  
Rodrigo Barros ◽  
Rodrigo Silva ◽  
Ronny Peredo ◽  

Migratory birds are threatened by habitat loss and degradation, illegal killings, ineffective conservation policies, knowledge gaps and climate change. These threats are particularly troubling in the Procellariiformes (Aves), one of the most endangered bird groups. For “storm-petrels”, their cryptic breeding behavior, asynchrony between populations, and light pollution pose additional threats that contribute to increased mortality.Markham’s Storm-Petrel (Hydrobates markhami), a poorly known migratory species, is a pelagic bird that breeds in dispersed colonies in the Sechura and Atacama Deserts, with asynchronous reproduction between colonies, and is highly affected by artificial lights. Considering its complex conservation scenario and singular breeding, we expected to find narrow habitat distribution conditions, strong geographic genetic structure, and spatially differentiation related to human population activities (e.g., light pollution) and the climate global change. To evaluate these predictions, we analyzed the phylogeography, current and future potential distribution based on mitochondrial gene ND1 and geographic records.The phylogeographic analyses revealed three well-supported clades (i.e., Paracas, Arica, and Salar Grande), and the geographical distribution modeled using an intrinsic conditional model (iCAR) suggests a positive relationship with the mean temperature of the wettest quarter and of the driest quarter, solar radiation, and anthropogenic disturbance. The future predictions under moderate and severe scenarios of global change indicated a drastic distribution area reduction, especially in the southern zone around Tarapacá and Antofagasta in Chile. These suggest a potential loss of unique genetic diversity and the need for conservation actions particularly focused at the edges of the H. markhami distribution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 163 (1) ◽  
pp. 21
Samantha M. Lawler ◽  
Aaron C. Boley ◽  
Hanno Rein

Abstract Megaconstellations of thousands to tens of thousands of artificial satellites (satcons) are rapidly being developed and launched. These satcons will have negative consequences for observational astronomy research, and are poised to drastically interfere with naked-eye stargazing worldwide should mitigation efforts be unsuccessful. Here we provide predictions for the optical brightnesses and on-sky distributions of several satcons, including Starlink, OneWeb, Kuiper, and StarNet/GW, for a total of 65,000 satellites on their filed or predicted orbits. We develop a simple model of satellite reflectivity, which is calibrated using published Starlink observations. We use this model to estimate the visible magnitudes and on-sky distributions for these satellites as seen from different places on Earth, in different seasons, and different times of night. For latitudes near 50° north and south, satcon satellites make up a few percent of all visible point sources all night long near the summer solstice, as well as near sunrise and sunset on the equinoxes. Altering the satellites’ altitudes only changes the specific impacts of the problem. Without drastic reduction of the reflectivities, or significantly fewer total satellites in orbit, satcons will greatly change the night sky worldwide.

Eos ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 102 ◽  
Brian Phan

The first stopover site map for U.S. migratory birds reveals the attraction of urban light pollution.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13472
Karolina M. Zielinska-Dabkowska ◽  
Kyra Xavia

The rapid development of technology coupled with humanity’s desire to reach beyond terra firma, has resulted in more than 60 years of Outer Space activities. Although the exploration of space has provided many advantages and benefits to society so far, including vast, new information that has greatly added to our understanding of our planet and beyond, unfortunately, mankind’s footprint has negative aspects that need to be minimised as much as possible. In recent decades, a major worldwide problem has emerged in regard to the significant increase in light pollution from ground-based illuminations, as well as a lack of proper regulatory frameworks to mitigate the issue in order to protect the night sky and astronomical research. More recently, due to the escalating demand of air space for microsatellites and the rapid development of these new space technologies, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), a new problem has arisen connected to visual light pollution (VLP). New Zealand has been especially affected, as, because of its dark skies, it has the third highest number of astronomical observatories in the world. The aim of this research is to identify critical areas for broader investigation; an action plan to improve the impact of new technologies is urgently required, not only at a national level but also worldwide. This is crucial in order to preserve humanity’s right to access the night sky and to also enable continual professional and amateur night-time observations for the present and the future, as well as for New Zealand to become a Dark Sky Nation.

2021 ◽  
Kai Feng ◽  
Luoxi Hao ◽  
Shujian Dai

LED wide beam angle lamps have been widely used but might leading to glare or light pollution easily than traditional floodlighting lamps. Standards for wide beam angle products is not enough and a laboratory experiment was carried out in which visual and emotional comfort was used as evaluation items. 3 linear lamps (3000K/4000K/5000K) were used to evaluate emotional and visual comfort changes by performing different brightness or dynamic speed. Results showed that both brightness and dynamic speed could lead to negative feelings while emotional discomfort always occurs behind the eye’s discomfort. A higher brightness could leading to more negative evaluations, while some people think that medium brightness gives a more comfort feeling. A faster speed leads to more negative evaluation while some subjects prefer a medium speed (both in shading and erasure situations); In different lighting scenes, the significance of different indicators is different.

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