adolescents and young adults
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-34
Kathleen Denise H. Ubaldo ◽  
Marison Felicidad R. Dy

This study aimed to discover if adolescents’ and young adults’ empathy capacity is higher when they engage more in fiction reading. A total of 301 students, aged 16-22, completed a self-administered questionnaire. More than half (56%) of the respondents consider reading as a hobby with books as the preferred reading material. Around 38% have moderate fiction reading scores and around 77% have high empathy capacity scores. Findings showed that the older the respondent is, the less likely they would read fiction and the lower their empathy level. Females are more likely to read fiction and are more empathic than males. Also, results revealed that the more the individual reads fiction, the more empathic they can become. Home and school interventions can be created to increase opportunities and desire for reading fiction and enhancing empathy capacity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 96 ◽  
pp. 50-55
James A. Balogun ◽  
Olufemi B. Bankole ◽  
Oghenekevwe Okere ◽  
Enoch O. Uche ◽  
Folusho M. Balogun ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 275275302110687
Kimberly A. Pyke-Grimm ◽  
Linda S. Franck ◽  
Bonnie Halpern-Felsher ◽  
Robert E. Goldsby ◽  
Roberta S. Rehm

Background: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer must negotiate the transition between childhood and adulthood while dealing with a life-threatening illness. AYA involvement in decision making varies depending on the type of decision and when decisions occur during treatment, and evidence suggests that AYAs want to be involved in decision making. Objective: To explore involvement of AYAs with cancer in day-to-day decisions affected by their cancer and treatment. Methods: This qualitative study used interpretive focused ethnography within the sociologic tradition, informed by symbolic interactionism. Semi-structured interviews and informal participant observation took place at two quaternary pediatric oncology programs. Results: Thirty-one interviews were conducted with 16 AYAs ages 15 to 20 years. Major day to day decision-making categories identified included: (1) mental mindset, (2) self-care practices, (3) self-advocacy, and (4) negotiating relationships. Participants described how they came to grips with their illness early on and decided to fight their cancer. They described decisions they made to protect their health, how they advocated for themselves and decisions they made about relationships with family and friends. Conclusions: Through day-to-day decisions, participants managed the impact of cancer and its treatment on their daily lives. Research should focus on developing and implementing interventions to empower AYAs to participate in day-to-day decisions that will affect how they manage their cancer, its treatment and ultimately their outcomes. Implications for Practice: Healthcare providers can facilitate AYA's participation in day-to-day decision making through encouraging autonomy and self-efficacy by providing support and through effective communication.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Iren Johnsen ◽  
Ane Martine Tømmeraas

Abstract Background Although many lose a close friend each year, they are seldom the focus of grief research. However, these losses often cause severe and long-lasting reactions. Deaths among adolescents and young adults are also often caused by traumatic events, e.g. from accidents, suicides, and homicides, placing them at significant risk for complicated grief reactions. The focus of this paper is bereaved friends after the shootings at Utøya, Norway in 2011, which is among a few studies that focus on bereaved friends, exploring how attachment affects the grief process after the loss of a close friend. Methods This paper explores qualitative data from in-depth interviews with thirteen bereaved friends, conducted about 28 months after the loss. The interview sample consisted of eight females and five males, aged 18–31 years. The interviews were semi-structured, with a theme guide of 14 questions, and the method used for analyses was systematic text condensation. Results Two main themes were identified from the analyses of the interviews: Friendship and Grief, with the subordinate themes: The importance of the friendship, Longing and remembrance, How the loss has affected other relationships, How the loss has affected the friend’s daily lives, Processing of the grief and Not being family. For most of the bereaved friends the loss and the grief had a profound effect on them and their overall lives, from daily functioning in school or at work, to changes in attitudes, and the way they were met as bereaved. Conclusions The support, intimacy, and feelings of togetherness we share with our friends are of great importance and value for all people, but maybe especially for young people. When adolescents and young adults experience losses, their reactions are often intense and long-lasting, and especially complicated grief reactions can affect school performance and concentration, health, result in emotional problems; and disrupt development (e.g. identity formation and social skills). We don’t know much about the grief of bereaved friends and how their reactions can be explained. Thus, we hope that these findings could shed light on their grief reactions, and provide new knowledge on the short- and long-term psychological impact of losses of friends.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Janique Fortier ◽  
Tamara Taillieu ◽  
Samantha Salmon ◽  
Ashley Stewart-Tufescu ◽  
Isabel Garcés Davila ◽  

Abstract Background Vaping among adolescents and young adults is a significant public health concern worldwide. Understanding which risk factors are associated with vaping is important to help inform evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies. There are several gaps in the current literature examining these associations such as limited longitudinal research. We examined the association between parental smoking/vaping, adolescent sex, mental disorders in adolescence, 13 adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and a) any vaping and b) course of vaping across two time points among adolescents and young adults. Methods Data were from Waves 1 and 2 of the longitudinal Well-Being and Experiences Study (The WE Study) in Manitoba, Canada which collected data from a community sample of adolescents (14 to 17 years) and their parent/caregiver in Wave 1 in 2017–18 and the adolescents/young adults only in Wave 2 in 2019. A total of 752 adolescents/young adults (72.4% of the original cohort) completed both waves of the study. Binary and multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to understand the relationship between the 16 risk factors and the two vaping outcomes. Results Vaping prevalence was 45.5% for any vaping, 2.7% for Wave 1 vaping only, 19.7% for new onset Wave 2 vaping, and 21.2% for vaping at both waves. After adjusting for covariates, the majority of risk factors examined were associated with any adolescent or young adult vaping, including: parental smoking or vaping, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, exposure to verbal intimate partner violence, household substance use, household mental illness, parental separation/divorce, parental problems with police, foster care or contact with a child protective organization, an unsafe neighbourhood, and peer victimization. The majority of these risk factors, as well as adolescent mental health and parental gambling, were associated with different courses of vaping across the two time points. Conclusions The findings emphasize the need for early vaping prevention and identified several ACEs and other factors that were associated with adolescent and young adult vaping and course of vaping. These identified ACEs and risk factors can help inform programs, strategies, and potential groups to target for vaping interventions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. e2143144
Joel G. Ray ◽  
Peter C. Austin ◽  
Kayvan Aflaki ◽  
Astrid Guttmann ◽  
Alison L. Park

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Michaël Bégin ◽  
Karin Ensink ◽  
Katherine Bellavance ◽  
John F. Clarkin ◽  
Lina Normandin

Adolescence and young adulthood are peak periods for risky sexual behaviors (RSB) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. RSB is a major public health concern and adolescents with BPD may be particularly vulnerable to RSB, but this is understudied. The aim of this study was to identify distinct RSB profiles in youth and determine whether a specific profile was associated with BPD features. Participants were 220 adolescents and young adults (age 14–21) recruited from the community. To identify groups of adolescents and young adults who engage in similar RSB, a latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted on sexually active youth (57%). Next ANOVA was used to identify how profiles differed in terms RSB dimensions and BPD features. We identified three distinct RSB profiles: (1) a Low RSB profile that was manifested by the majority (77.7%) of youth; (2) an Unprotected Sex in Relationships profile (13.3%) and; (3) an Impulsive Sex Outside Relationships profile (12%) which was manifested by youth with significantly higher BPD features. The findings shed light on the difficulties youth with BPD manifest around integrating sexuality, intimacy, fidelity, and love. This contrasts with the majority of youth who are sexually active in the context of relationships and engage in little or no RSB. The findings have important clinical implications. Adolescent sexuality is frequently in the blind spot of clinicians. To address the elevated risk of RSB in adolescents with BPD, interventions are needed to help adolescents navigate this period and improve their understanding of the reasons for RSB while addressing difficulties in establishing sexual and attachment relationships.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Charlotte Calvo ◽  
Leila Ronceray ◽  
Nathalie Dhédin ◽  
Jochen Buechner ◽  
Anja Troeger ◽  

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) represent a challenging group of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients with specific needs. While there is growing evidence from comparative studies that this age group profits from intensified paediatric-based chemotherapy, the impact and optimal implementation of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the overall treatment strategy is less clear. Over recent years, improved survival rates after myeloablative allogeneic HSCT for ALL have been reported similarly for AYAs and children despite differences in transplantation practise. Still, AYAs appear to have inferior outcomes and an increased risk of treatment-related morbidity and mortality in comparison with children. To further improve HSCT outcomes and reduce toxicities in AYAs, accurate stratification and evaluation of additional or alternative targeted treatment options are crucial, based on specific molecular and immunological characterisation of ALL and minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment during therapy. Age-specific factors such as increased acute toxicities and poorer adherence to treatment as well as late sequelae might influence treatment decisions. In addition, educational, social, work, emotional, and sexual aspects during this very crucial period of life need to be considered. In this review, we summarise the key findings of recent studies on treatment approach and outcomes in this vulnerable patient group after HSCT, turning our attention to the different approaches applied in paediatric and adult centres. We focus on the specific needs of AYAs with ALL regarding social aspects and supportive care to handle complications as well as fertility issues. Finally, we comment on potential areas of future research and concisely debate the capacity of currently available immunotherapies to reduce toxicity and further improve survival in this challenging patient group.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
B. Jabri ◽  
M. Iken ◽  
S. Ait- Ou-amar ◽  
S. Rida ◽  
A. Bouziane ◽  

Aim. This study aims to evaluate the association of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis with periodontitis in adolescents and young adults in a Moroccan population. Methods. 426 subjects aged between 12 and 25 years were recruited for the study. A pool of plaque sample was taken. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud Chloramphenicol medium at 37°C for 24–48 hours and then identified by the Vitek 2 YST system. Clinical data and presence of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis were analyzed using Jamovi (Version 1.8). Results. Candida albicans was observed in 25 subjects among 68 diseased patients (37%) and in 60 subjects among 358 healthy patients (17%). It can be reported that under normal yeast conditions, there is a statistically significant difference between these two groups ( P < 0.001 ). Candida dubliniensis was more prevalent in periodontitis than in healthy subjects ( P = 0.026 ). Regarding clinical variables, subgroups of periodontitis subjects showed significant statistical differences for periodontal probing depth, clinical attachment loss, and number of decayed teeth in advanced periodontitis in comparison with initial or mild periodontitis. The results also indicate that the presence of the two species of Candida is not related to gender or age ( P > 0.05 ) nor related to the severity of the periodontal disease in this population. Conclusion. Within the limits of our study, Candida albicans is more frequently associated with periodontitis. The potential role of C. albicans in periodontitis pathogenesis is very complex. More studies on biofilm associated with different forms of periodontitis are necessary. It is also important to assess the coexistence of periodontitis and caries and the associated biofilms.

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