Background: Low soil productivity in Nigeria and Africa sub sahara is considered as one of the major causes of food insecurity and under nutrition. This area is considered among the most regions affected by acidity on soil nutrients optimization. Despite of its severity, there is limited knowledge about limiting effect of pH on nutrients availability and maize yield in the state. Evolving a technology that does not depend on traditional system of amendment for pH assessment for increased soil productivity must first of all go through a good knowledge of the nature and distribution of soil studied. The present study aimed to evaluate three pH (4, 7 and 9) values on soil chemical properties in the state and assess maize performance under these conditions in order to control and manage pH related problems. Methods: In the field-laboratory investigation during 2018-2019 at different localities of Ebonyi State were surveyed. Three sampling localities were selected based on geographical situation, climate and local condition. In the laboratory, the soil samples of natural stock collected were processed for mean pH values and confirmed with pH meter using standard laboratory method. Maize was used as test crop to assess effect of pH on its performance. Result: Our investigations in Ebonyi State have allowed us to inventory three pH values. Among the inventoried pH values, some are regarded adverse for soil productivity. The implication of soil pH on nutrients availability and maize performance was discussed. The current work will be a complementary contribution of detailed study of effect of pH on soil productivity.
Poor water solubility and low bioavailability of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin remain as substantial challenges to their oral delivery via functional foods. In this study, the effect of pH and the addition of a protein (sodium caseinate; NaCas) on the aqueous solubility and stability of rutin was studied, from which an efficient delivery system for the incorporation of rutin into functional food products was developed. The aqueous solubility, chemical stability, crystallinity, and morphology of rutin (0.1–5% w/v) under various pH (1–11) and protein concentrations (0.2–8% w/v) were studied. To manufacture the concentrated colloidally stable rutin–NaCas particles, rutin was dissolved and deprotonated in a NaCas solution at alkaline pH before its subsequent neutralisation at pH 7. The excess water was removed using ultrafiltration to improve the loading capacity. Rutin showed the highest solubility at pH 11, while the addition of NaCas resulted in the improvement of both solubility and chemical stability. Critically, to achieve particles with colloidal stability, the NaCas:rutin ratio (w/w) had to be greater than 2.5 and 40 respectively for the lowest (0.2% w/v) and highest (4 to 8% w/v) concentrations of NaCas. The rutin–NaCas particles in the concentrated formulations were physically stable, with a size in the range of 185 to 230 nm and zeta potential of −36.8 to −38.1 mV, depending on the NaCas:rutin ratio. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of rutin in different systems were 76% to 83% and 2% to 22%, respectively. The concentrated formulation containing 5% w/v NaCas and 2% w/v rutin was chosen as the most efficient delivery system due to the ideal protein:flavonoid ratio (2.5:1), which resulted in the highest loading capacity (22%). Taken together, the findings show that the delivery system developed in this study can be a promising method for the incorporation of a high concentration of hydrophobic flavonoids such as rutin into functional foods.
Silica is an essential material which has many applications in various fields such as construction,
catalyst, optical fibers and raw material of metallurgical industry. This work observed the recent trends
in silica extraction from agro and natural wastes for high-tech applications. Hence, this work approached
in new way for the bio-silica extraction from waste rice husk using HCl, H2SO4 and CH3COOH for the
calcination. The results revealed that the effect of pH on ash nature and silica purity. The purity of
silica was differed based on metal ions, rice husk ash color and non-combusted carbon. The results
were compared with treatment in absence of acid ash using FT-IR, SEM, EDAX and XRD analysis to
measure the effect of pH on the bio-silica purity. This work observed the lower carbon content in acid
treated ash when compare to water washed rice husk.