Biofilm Formation
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Kevin D. Mlynek ◽  
Christopher T. Lopez ◽  
David P. Fetterer ◽  
Janice A. Williams ◽  
Joel A. Bozue

Biofilms have been established as an important lifestyle for bacteria in nature as these structured communities often enable survivability and persistence in a multitude of environments. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found throughout much of the northern hemisphere. However, biofilm formation remains understudied and poorly understood in F. tularensis as non-substantial biofilms are typically observed in vitro by the clinically relevant subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (Type A and B, respectively). Herein, we report conditions under which robust biofilm development was observed in a stochastic, but reproducible manner in Type A and B isolates. The frequency at which biofilm was observed increased temporally and appeared switch-like as progeny from the initial biofilm quickly formed biofilm in a predictable manner regardless of time or propagation with fresh media. The Type B isolates used for this study were found to more readily switch on biofilm formation than Type A isolates. Additionally, pH was found to function as an environmental checkpoint for biofilm initiation independently of the heritable cellular switch. Multiple colony morphologies were observed in biofilm positive cultures leading to the identification of a particular subset of grey variants that constitutively produce biofilm. Further, we found that constitutive biofilm forming isolates delay the onset of a viable non-culturable state. In this study, we demonstrate that a robust biofilm can be developed by clinically relevant F. tularensis isolates, provide a mechanism for biofilm initiation and examine the potential role of biofilm formation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (2) ◽  
Caixiang Chen ◽  
Shumei Wen ◽  
Zhihui Wang ◽  
Dongmei Zhang ◽  
Jinming Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shenmiao Li ◽  
Kelvin Ka-wan Chan ◽  
Marti Z. Hua ◽  
Greta Gölz ◽  
Xiaonan Lu

Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of human diarrheal diseases worldwide. Despite its sensitivity to environmental stresses, C. jejuni ubiquitously distributes throughout poultry production chains. Biofilm formation mediated by quorum sensing is suggested to be critical to the survival of C. jejuni in agroecosystem. C. jejuni possesses LuxS, the enzyme involved in the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling molecules. In this study, two fatty acids, namely decanoic acid and lauric acid, were identified to be effective in inhibiting AI-2 activity of C. jejuni. Both decanoic acid and lauric acid at 100 ppm inhibited ∼90% AI-2 activity (P < 0.05) of C. jejuni without bacterial inactivation. The biofilm biomass of two C. jejuni strains was reduced by 10–50% (P < 0.05) after treatment by both fatty acids, while increased biofilm formation was observed for one C. jejuni strain. In addition, both fatty acids effectively reduced the motility of all tested C. jejuni strains. These findings can aid in developing alternative C. jejuni control strategies in agri-food and clinical settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Zahra Farshadzadeh ◽  
Maryam Pourhajibagher ◽  
Behrouz Taheri ◽  
Alireza Ekrami ◽  
Mohammad Hossein Modarressi ◽  

Abstract Background The global emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to most conventional antibiotics presents a major therapeutic challenge and necessitates the discovery of new antibacterial agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo anti-biofilm potency of dermcidin-1L (DCD-1L) against extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-, pandrug-resistant (PDR)-, and ATCC19606-A. baumannii. Methods After determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DCD-1L, in vitro anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of DCD-1L were evaluated. Cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and the effect of DCD-1L treatment on the expression of various biofilm-associated genes were determined. The inhibitory effect of DCD-1L on biofilm formation in the model of catheter-associated infection, as well as, histopathological examination of the burn wound sites of mice treated with DCD-1L were assessed. Results The bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in all A. baumannii isolates were inhibited at 2 × , 4 × , and 8 × MIC of DCD-1L, while only 8 × MIC of DCD-1L was able to destroy the pre-formed biofilm in vitro. Also, reduce the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was observed following DCD-1L treatment. DCD-1L without cytotoxic and hemolytic activities significantly reduced the biofilm formation in the model of catheter-associated infection. In vivo results showed that the count of A. baumannii in infected wounds was significantly decreased and the promotion in wound healing by the acceleration of skin re-epithelialization in mice was observed following treatment with 8 × MIC of DCD-1L. Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that DCD-1L can inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation and prevent the onset of infection. Taking these properties together, DCD-1L appears as a promising candidate for antimicrobial and anti-biofilm drug development.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 224
Zhiling Zhao ◽  
Yongji Zhang ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
Wenhang Shi

Microorganism rebreeding and biofilm shedding enter the water body in the process of a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), which poses a threat to public health. Particles in water can gather pollutants as well as providing favorable growth conditions for bacteria. To date, there are a few studies which focus on the relationship between particles and biofilm formation. Therefore, the microbial diversity of biofilms in the different pipe materials and the effect on particle concentration on biofilm formation were investigated in this study. Experiments were carried out under a simulative DWDS (including iron (DI) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe). The results showed that the microbial diversity in biofilms followed this order: DI pipe > PVC pipe > DI pipe (upper). Moreover, the microbial biomass of biofilm and the fluorescence intensity of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS, produced by microorganisms) were the largest in the absence of particles. The amount of biofilm bacterial and the fluorescence intensity of EPS both showed first an increasing and then decreasing trend with particle concentration increasing. When particle concentration was relatively low, the absorption of particles and bacteria played a major role, however, with the increasing particle concentration, more stable particle–particle were formed and thus, EPS was easily extracted, resulting in the increase of fluorescence intensity of EPS.

Purnendu Bhowmik ◽  
Sreenath Rajagopal ◽  
Rothangamawi Victoria Hmar ◽  
Purnima Singh ◽  
Pragya Saxena ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Brandon Robin ◽  
Marion Nicol ◽  
Hung Le ◽  
Ali Tahrioui ◽  
Annick Schaumann ◽  

Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the most problematic bacterial pathogens responsible for hospital-acquired and community infections worldwide. Besides its high capacity to acquire antibiotic resistance mechanisms, it also presents high adhesion abilities on inert and living surfaces leading to biofilm development. This lifestyle confers additional protection against various treatments and allows it to persist for long periods in various hospital niches. Due to their remarkable antimicrobial tolerance, A. baumannii biofilms are difficult to control and ultimately eradicate. Further insights into the mechanism of biofilm development will help to overcome this challenge and to develop novel antibiofilm strategies. To unravel critical determinants of this sessile lifestyle, the proteomic profiles of two A. baumannii strains (ATTC17978 and SDF) grown in planktonic stationary phase or in mature solid–liquid (S-L) biofilm were compared using a semiquantitative proteomic study. Of interest, among the 69 common proteins determinants accumulated in the two strains at the S-L interface, we sorted out the MacAB-TolC system. This tripartite efflux pump played a role in A. baumannii biofilm formation as demonstrated by using ΔmacAB-tolC deletion mutant. Complementary approaches allowed us to get an overview of the impact of macAB-tolC deletion in A. baumannii physiology. Indeed, this efflux pump appeared to be involved in the envelope stress response occurring in mature biofilm. It contributes to maintain wild type (WT) membrane rigidity and provides tolerance to high osmolarity conditions. In addition, this system is probably involved in the maintenance of iron and sulfur homeostasis. MacAB-TolC might help this pathogen face and adapt to deleterious conditions occurring in mature biofilms. Increasing our knowledge of A. baumannii biofilm formation will undoubtedly help us develop new therapeutic strategies to tackle this emerging threat to human health.

Vânia Gaio ◽  
Tânia Lima ◽  
Manuel Vilanova ◽  
Nuno Cerca ◽  
Angela França

Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm cells are characterized by increased antimicrobial tolerance and improved ability to evade host immune system defenses. These features are, in part, due to the presence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. A previous study identified genes potentially involved in VBNC cells formation in S. epidermidis biofilms, among which SERP1682/1681 raised special interest due to their putative role as a toxin–antitoxin system of the mazEF family. Herein, we constructed an S. epidermidis mutant lacking the mazEF genes homologues and determined their role in (i) VBNC state induction during biofilm formation, (ii) antimicrobial susceptibility, (iii) survival in human blood and plasma, and (iv) activation of immune cells. Our results revealed that mazEF homologue did not affect the proportion of VBNC cells in S. epidermidis 1457, refuting the previous hypothesis that mazEF homologue could be linked with the emergence of VBNC cells in S. epidermidis biofilms. Additionally, mazEF homologue did not seem to influence key virulence factors on this strain, since its deletion did not significantly affect the mutant biofilm formation capacity, antimicrobial tolerance or the response by immune cells. Surprisingly, our data suggest that mazEF does not behave as a toxin–antitoxin system in S. epidermidis strain 1457, since no decrease in the viability and culturability of bacteria was found when only the mazF toxin homologue was being expressed.

Hyeon-Ji Hwang ◽  
Xi-Hui Li ◽  
Soo-Kyoung Kim ◽  
Joon-Hee Lee

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious pathogen with high antibiotic resistance, strong virulence, and ability to cause biofilm-mediated chronic infection. We found that these characteristics change profoundly before and after the time when anthranilate is produced as an “anthranilate peak”.

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