Advancements in contemporary medicine have led to an increasing life expectancy which has broadened the application of biomaterial implants. As each implant procedure has an innate risk of infection, the number of biomaterial-associated infections keeps rising. Staphylococcus aureus causes 34% of such infections and is known as a potent biofilm producer. By secreting micrococcal nuclease S. aureus is able to escape neutrophil extracellular traps by cleaving their DNA-backbone. Also, micrococcal nuclease potentially limits biofilm growth and adhesion by cleaving extracellular DNA, an important constituent of biofilms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of micrococcal nuclease on infection persistence and biofilm formation in a murine biomaterial-associated infection-model with polyvinylidene-fluoride mesh implants inoculated with bioluminescent S. aureus or its isogenic micrococcal nuclease deficient mutant. Supported by results based on in-vivo bioluminescence imaging, ex-vivo colony forming unit counts, and histological analysis it was found that production of micrococcal nuclease enables S. aureus bacteria to evade the immune response around an implant resulting in a persistent infection. As a novel finding, histological analysis provided clear indications that the production of micrococcal nuclease stimulates S. aureus to form biofilms, the presence of which extended neutrophil extracellular trap formation up to 13 days after mesh implantation. Since micrococcal nuclease production appeared vital for the persistence of S. aureus biomaterial-associated infection, targeting its production could be a novel strategy in preventing biomaterial-associated infection.
Biofilms have been established as an important lifestyle for bacteria in nature as these structured communities often enable survivability and persistence in a multitude of environments. Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium found throughout much of the northern hemisphere. However, biofilm formation remains understudied and poorly understood in F. tularensis as non-substantial biofilms are typically observed in vitro by the clinically relevant subspecies F. tularensis subsp. tularensis and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (Type A and B, respectively). Herein, we report conditions under which robust biofilm development was observed in a stochastic, but reproducible manner in Type A and B isolates. The frequency at which biofilm was observed increased temporally and appeared switch-like as progeny from the initial biofilm quickly formed biofilm in a predictable manner regardless of time or propagation with fresh media. The Type B isolates used for this study were found to more readily switch on biofilm formation than Type A isolates. Additionally, pH was found to function as an environmental checkpoint for biofilm initiation independently of the heritable cellular switch. Multiple colony morphologies were observed in biofilm positive cultures leading to the identification of a particular subset of grey variants that constitutively produce biofilm. Further, we found that constitutive biofilm forming isolates delay the onset of a viable non-culturable state. In this study, we demonstrate that a robust biofilm can be developed by clinically relevant F. tularensis isolates, provide a mechanism for biofilm initiation and examine the potential role of biofilm formation.
The global emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to most conventional antibiotics presents a major therapeutic challenge and necessitates the discovery of new antibacterial agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo anti-biofilm potency of dermcidin-1L (DCD-1L) against extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-, pandrug-resistant (PDR)-, and ATCC19606-A. baumannii.
After determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DCD-1L, in vitro anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activities of DCD-1L were evaluated. Cytotoxicity, hemolytic activity, and the effect of DCD-1L treatment on the expression of various biofilm-associated genes were determined. The inhibitory effect of DCD-1L on biofilm formation in the model of catheter-associated infection, as well as, histopathological examination of the burn wound sites of mice treated with DCD-1L were assessed.
The bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in all A. baumannii isolates were inhibited at 2 × , 4 × , and 8 × MIC of DCD-1L, while only 8 × MIC of DCD-1L was able to destroy the pre-formed biofilm in vitro. Also, reduce the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was observed following DCD-1L treatment. DCD-1L without cytotoxic and hemolytic activities significantly reduced the biofilm formation in the model of catheter-associated infection. In vivo results showed that the count of A. baumannii in infected wounds was significantly decreased and the promotion in wound healing by the acceleration of skin re-epithelialization in mice was observed following treatment with 8 × MIC of DCD-1L.
Results of this study demonstrated that DCD-1L can inhibit bacterial attachment and biofilm formation and prevent the onset of infection. Taking these properties together, DCD-1L appears as a promising candidate for antimicrobial and anti-biofilm drug development.
Campylobacter jejuni is a major bacterial cause of human diarrheal diseases worldwide. Despite its sensitivity to environmental stresses, C. jejuni ubiquitously distributes throughout poultry production chains. Biofilm formation mediated by quorum sensing is suggested to be critical to the survival of C. jejuni in agroecosystem. C. jejuni possesses LuxS, the enzyme involved in the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling molecules. In this study, two fatty acids, namely decanoic acid and lauric acid, were identified to be effective in inhibiting AI-2 activity of C. jejuni. Both decanoic acid and lauric acid at 100 ppm inhibited ∼90% AI-2 activity (P < 0.05) of C. jejuni without bacterial inactivation. The biofilm biomass of two C. jejuni strains was reduced by 10–50% (P < 0.05) after treatment by both fatty acids, while increased biofilm formation was observed for one C. jejuni strain. In addition, both fatty acids effectively reduced the motility of all tested C. jejuni strains. These findings can aid in developing alternative C. jejuni control strategies in agri-food and clinical settings.
The use of antibiotics or antifungals to control infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms is currently insufficiently effective because of their emerging resistance. Thanks to the ability of microorganisms to form a biofilm and thus increase their resistance to administered drugs even more, modern medicine faces the task of finding novel substances to combat infections caused by them. In this regard, the effects of essential oils or plant extracts are often studied. Among the relatively neglected plants is Boswellia serrata, which has a high content of biologically active boswellic acids. In this study, we focused on one of the most common nosocomial infections, which are caused by Candida species. The most common representative is C. albicans, although the number of infections caused by non-albicans species has recently been increasing. We focused on the antifungal activity of Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix against planktonic and adhering cells of Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida krusei. The antifungal activity against adhering cells was further explored by determining the metabolic activity of cells (MTT) and determining the total amount of biofilm using crystal violet. Boswellic acid-containing plant extract was shown to suppress the growth of a suspension population of all tested Candida species. Boswellia serrata extract Bioswellix was most effective in inhibiting C. albicans biofilm formation.