Health Literacy
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257552
Yasue Fukuda ◽  
Shuji Ando ◽  
Koji Fukuda

Countermeasures against the spread of COVID-19 have become an urgent issue in educational settings, where many group activities are necessary. Educators are key to preventing the spread of COVID-19 in educational settings. Infection prevention behavior requires comprehensive and complex measures such as self-restraint. disinfection care, hand washing, wearing masks and recommendation and implementation of vaccination. Improvement in the knowledge, skills, and preventive actions of educators vis-à-vis COVID-19 could allow for the continued provision of educational services while ensuring safety in educational settings. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore the knowledge and preventive actions of educators regarding COVID-19 and vaccination awareness to provide appropriate support for educators. The study used data collected from 1,000 Japanese educators in January 2021 when the third wave of viral infections spread. Online surveys and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to determine age and whether respondents were being cared for by a doctor. We investigated the effects of factors on educators’ willingness to be vaccinated and changes in their behavior. This study found that factors such as age, gender, whether a respondent was under a physician’s care, and health literacy, affected the willingness of educators to receive vaccinations and engage in preventive actions. The study also suggests that the reliability of national government public relations efforts is lower than the reliability of local government public relations and that of information from family physicians, pharmacies, and mass media. It is therefore necessary to reexamine how information is disseminated by the national government and to increase the degree of trust in that information among the public. The findings of the study also revealed the importance of improving the provision of appropriate information and health literacy for the behavior of educators, not only during the initial outbreak, but also during the subsequent period of pandemic life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Marie-Anne Durand ◽  
Aurore Lamouroux ◽  
Niamh M. Redmond ◽  
Michel Rotily ◽  
Aurélie Bourmaud ◽  

Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer burden worldwide. In France, it is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Systematic uptake of CRC screening can improve survival rates. However, people with limited health literacy (HL) and lower socioeconomic position rarely participate. Our aim is to assess the impact of an intervention combining HL and CRC screening training for general practitioners (GPs) with a pictorial brochure and video targeting eligible patients, to increase CRC screening and other secondary outcomes, after 1 year, in several underserved geographic areas in France. Methods We will use a two-arm multicentric randomized controlled cluster trial with 32 GPs primarily serving underserved populations across four regions in France with 1024 patients recruited. GPs practicing in underserved areas (identified using the European Deprivation Index) will be block-randomized to: 1) a combined intervention (HL and CRC training + brochure and video for eligible patients), or 2) usual care. Patients will be included if they are between 50 and 74 years old, eligible for CRC screening, and present to recruited GPs. The primary outcome is CRC screening uptake after 1 year. Secondary outcomes include increasing knowledge and patient activation. After trial recruitment, we will conduct semi-structured interviews with up to 24 GPs (up to 8 in each region) and up to 48 patients (6 to 12 per region) based on data saturation. We will explore strategies that promote the intervention’s sustained use and rapid implementation using Normalization Process Theory. We will follow a community-based participatory research approach throughout the trial. For the analyses, we will adopt a regression framework for all quantitative data. We will also use exploratory mediation analyses. We will analyze all qualitative data using a framework analysis guided by Normalization Process Theory. Discussion Limited HL and its impact on the general population is a growing public health and policy challenge worldwide. It has received limited attention in France. A combined HL intervention could reduce disparities in CRC screening, increase screening rates among the most vulnerable populations, and increase knowledge and activation (beneficial in the context of repeated screening). Trial registration Registry: Trial registration number: 2020-A01687-32. Date of registration: 17th November 2020.

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Maja Bertram ◽  
Urs Steiner Brandt ◽  
Rikke Klitten Hansen ◽  
Gert Tinggaard Svendsen

Abstract Background Does higher health literacy lead to higher trust in public hospitals? Existing literature suggests that this is the case since a positive association between the level of health literacy and the level of trust in physicians and the health care system has been shown. This study aims to challenge this assumption. Methods Based on theoretical arguments from game theory and analysis of empirical data, we argue that the association is better described as an inversely u-shaped curve, suggesting that low and high levels of health literacy lead to a lower level of trust than a medium level of health literacy does. The empirical analysis is based on a study of the Danes’ relationship to the overall health care system. More than 6000 Danes have been asked about their overall expectations of the health service, their concrete experiences and their attitudes to a number of change initiatives. Results Game theory analysis show that the combined perceived cooperation and benefit effects can explain an inversely u-shaped relationship between social groups and trust in the health care system. Based on quantitative, binary regression analyses of empirical data, the lowest degree of trust is found among patients from the lowest and highest social groups, while the highest degree of trust is found in the middle group. The main driver for this result is that while patients having low health literacy perceive that the health care system is not cooperative, patients with a high level of health literacy have high expectations about the quality, which the health care system might not be able to provide. This reduces the perceived benefit from their encounter with the health care system. Conclusion It is important that health care professionals understand that some patient groups have a higher chance of cooperation (e.g., agreeing on the choice of treatment) or defection (e.g. passing a complaint) than others. In perspective, future research should undertake further qualitative examinations of possible patient types and their demands in relation to different health care sectors, focusing specifically on the opportunities to improve the handling of different patient types.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 61-71
Fitria Anggraini ◽  
Aprianti . ◽  
Dian Puspitaningtyas Laksana ◽  
Fitria Wulandari

Kasus Tuberkulosis pada anak di Kota Semarang pada tahun 2017 mencapai 916 kasus, meningkat signifikan dibandingkan tahun 2016. Puskesmas Bandarharjo merupakan daerah dengan penderita TB tertinggi di Kota Semarang. Penemuan kasus TB pada anak di Puskemas Bandarharjo tahun 2016-2019 mengalami fluktuasi hingga 43 kasus yang tersebar di 4 kelurahan yaitu Tanjungmas, Dadapsari, Kuningan dan Bandarharjo. Tingginya angka kasus tuberkulosis di Kota Semarang dapat disebabkan oleh rendahnya tingkat melek kesehatan. Pencegahan sejak dini diharapkan mampu mengurangi peningkatan jumlah kasus dan kematian akibat tuberkulosis paru pada anak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan antara literasi kesehatan dengan perilaku pencegahan orang tua terhadap kasus tuberkulosis paru pada anak di Puskesmas Bandarharjo Semarang. Pengumpulan data primer dilakukan oleh kader Puskesmas Bandarharjo dengan menggunakan kuesioner. Teknik pengambilan sampel adalah consecutive sampling dengan jumlah sampel 92 orang. Analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah analisis univariat dan bivariat. Analisis univariat dilakukan untuk memberikan gambaran variabel penelitian dalam bentuk distribusi persentase. Analisis bivariat dilakukan dengan menggunakan chi-square untuk mengetahui hubungan masing-masing variabel. Ada hubungan yang signifikan antara pendapatan orang tua per bulan dengan kejadian tuberkulosis paru anak dan tidak ada hubungan yang signifikan antara usia responden, tingkat pendidikan orang tua, literasi kesehatan dan perilaku pencegahan orang tua terhadap kejadian TB paru anak di Indonesia. wilayah kerja Puskesmas Bandarharjo Semarang.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Daniela Marsili ◽  
Roberto Pasetto ◽  
Ivano Iavarone ◽  
Lucia Fazzo ◽  
Amerigo Zona ◽  

The present article deals with environmental health literacy (EHL) in contaminated sites. The Italian national epidemiological surveillance system of population resident in contaminated sites, including vulnerable subgroups, and the local epidemiological studies and communication initiatives implemented in specific sites are considered. The Italian experience in contaminated sites corroborates the importance of EHL as a key component of community capacity to participate in mitigating environmental health risks. Effective access to evidence-based information on environmental health risk is the basis for improving awareness of local institutional and social actors. The proactive involvement of stakeholders in preventive actions and the adoption of shared practices reflect the progressive increase of their EHL. Bidirectional communication relying on participative approaches, collaborative nationallocal initiatives, and dialogue with the communities is an effective tool for increasing EHL at each site. This enhances the community capacity to use the acquired knowledge in promoting prevention actions. Consideration of socioeconomic fragilities and vulnerable groups in well-designed EHL practices contributes to prevent adverse health effects induced by specific environmental exposures and to promote environmental justice at local level.

Public Health ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 199 ◽  
pp. 25-31
C. Bouclaous ◽  
I. Haddad ◽  
A. Alrazim ◽  
H. Kolanjian ◽  
A. El Safadi

Delores Springs ◽  
Darrell Norman Burrell ◽  
Anton Shufutinsky ◽  
Kristine E. Shipman ◽  
Tracie E. McCargo ◽  

In March of 2020, the United States activated nationwide pandemic response protocols due to the swift spread of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019, also known as COVID-19. Amidst the domestic response, urgency surrounded the need to build collective awareness of the signs, symptoms, and preventive measures of the virus. As the virus spread and historically marginalized communities were disproportionately impacted with rates of infection, the need to explore the presence of disparities in health communication, health education, and personal health literacy surfaced. The research contained within this study examines the root cause of the gap in health literacy for communities of color and presents actionable next steps to increase positive healthcare outcomes for all.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Stephanie Stock ◽  
Sibel Altin ◽  
Farah Nawabi ◽  
Daniele Civello ◽  
Arim Shukri ◽  

Abstract Background Adequate health literacy (HL) levels contribute to good health outcomes and successful disease self-management in patients with chronic disease. Hence, it is essential that family doctors recognize patients with inadequate HL in need of additional support. This study had two aims: (1) to assess and compare patient self-reported versus family doctor-rated HL estimates, and (2) to explore associations between patient-reported HL, self-efficacy and chronic diseases. Methods Participants in this cross-sectional survey were recruited through general practices in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Patient self-reported HL was measured using the European Health Literacy Survey-16. Family doctor-rated HL was measured with an adapted version of this instrument. Using crosstabulations patient-reported and family doctor-rated HL estimates were compared for 346 patient-family doctor pairs. Associations between HL, self-efficacy and chronic disease were investigated using regression analyses. Results Patient-reported and family doctor-rated HL estimates were concordant in 38% of all cases. On average family doctors rated their patients’ HL lower than patients rated their own HL. The lower average family doctor ratings were more pronounced when patients were older, male and had more than one chronic disease. Female family doctors rated HL of male patients lower than their male colleagues. Patient reported HL had a significant positive association with self-efficacy. Mediation analysis provided support that self-efficacy acts as mediator between HL and the number of chronic diseases. Conclusions Our study findings indicate a significant discrepancy between patients’ self-reported HL and externally rated HL by family doctors. A more systematic utilization of HL screeners might help reduce this discrepancy. At the same time, consideration should be given to enhancing communication training for family doctors and addressing critical HL skills in patient education.

2021 ◽  
Joy Egede ◽  
Maria J. Galvez Trigo ◽  
Adrian Hazzard ◽  
Martin Porcheron ◽  
Edgar Bodiaj ◽  

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