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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-19
Author(s):  
Violeta Rupay Aguilar
Keyword(s):  
El Niño ◽  
El Nino ◽  
La Niña ◽  

Todos conocemos de vista a los niños trabajadores de la calle. Nos los cruzamos con ellos en las esquinas de nuestra ciudad, vemos trabajando, vendiendo o simplemente deambulando, revoloteando en los parques o sitios considerados de ellos. Los conocen mucho más en los hogares transitorios. Buscan lugares donde puedan tener un techo para cobijarse. La casi totalidad de niños trabajadores de la calle han atravesado situaciones de violencia familiar, de todo tipo: físico, psicológico e incluso sexual, ellos pertenecen al estrato inferior de nuestra sociedad, que viven en una situación de carencia económica extrema, con escasas posibilidades de acceder a los bienes y recursos en la comunidad. En primera instancia viene a ser un estudio explicativo de carácter prospectivo, toda vez que nos ha permitido aportar una alternativa frente a la vida de los niños. La investigación responde a un diseño de encuesta que se aplicó a una muestra de niños y un cuestionario que se aplicó a los responsables de las instituciones que acogen a los niños de la calle así como a los profesores de los centros educativos donde estudian. Entrevistamos a algunos niños (por género, edad y tipo de actividad que realizan) de acuerdo a un muestreo probabilístico. Se realizaron focus groups con los padres de familia y con los niños a fin de poder obtener información, así como historias de vida. Entre las principales conclusiones sabe señalar que vivimos en un mundo en el que predomina la violencia. No debería extrañarnos que su dominio se inicie en la familia, pues es ahí donde empieza a manifestarse. La mayor parte de las agresiones graves a los niños se da precisamente en el hogar y esto da lugar a que dicho problema del maltrato a los niños se encuentre en personas y circunstancias casi o totalmente fuera de control, este tema se relaciona con el malinterpretado derecho de corrección y de una u otra manera todos debemos hacernos responsables para no seguir incubando en la sociedad ese fenómeno tan desastroso y responsable de diversas anomalías en la misma. Asimismo diversos estudios en el tema han demostrado que los padres son los principales autores del maltrato infantil y a pesar de las graves consecuencias que este fenómeno desencadena no se debe calificar a estas personas como pervertidas o anormales, ya que sufren al igual que el niño o la niña agredidos ya que en la mayor parte de los casos éstos desahogan sus propias frustraciones que sus padres les hicieron sufrir de niños en sus hijos y sin darse cuenta de que así es, es decir, es un proceso inconsciente que se convierte en un círculo vicioso.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Angela M. Maguire ◽  
Julieann Keyser ◽  
Kelly Brown ◽  
Daniel Kivlahan ◽  
Madeline Romaniuk ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Families with complex needs face significant challenges accessing and navigating health and social services. For veteran families, these challenges are exacerbated by interactions between military and civilian systems of care, and the density of the veterans’ non-profit sector. This qualitative study was designed to gather rich, detailed information on complex needs in veteran families; and explore service providers’ and families’ experiences of accessing and navigating the veterans’ support system. Methods The study comprised participant background questionnaires (n = 34), focus groups with frontline service providers (n = 18), and one-on-one interviews with veteran families (n = 16) in Australia. The semi-structured focus groups and interviews were designed to gather rich, detailed information on four study topics: (i) health and wellbeing needs in veteran families; (ii) service-access barriers and facilitators; (iii) unmet needs and gaps in service provision; and (iv) practical solutions for improving service delivery. The study recruited participants who could best address the focus on veteran families with complex needs. The questionnaire data was used to describe relevant characteristics of the participant sample. The focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and a reflexive thematic analysis was conducted to identify patterns of shared meaning in the qualitative data. Results Both service providers and families found the veterans’ support system difficult to access and navigate. System fragmentation was perceived to impede care coordination, and delay access to holistic care for veteran families with complex needs. The medico-legal aspects of compensation and rehabilitation processes were perceived to harm veteran identity, and undermine health and wellbeing outcomes. Recovery-oriented practice was viewed as a way to promote veteran independence and self-management. Participants expressed a strong preference for family-centred care that was informed by an understanding of military lifestyle and culture. Conclusion The health and wellbeing needs of veteran families intensify during the transition from full-time military service to civilian environments, and service- or reintegration-related difficulties may emerge (or persist) for a significant period of time thereafter. Veteran families with complex needs are unduly burdened by care coordination demands. There is a pressing need for high-quality implementation studies that evaluate initiatives for integrating fragmented systems of care.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 457-467
Author(s):  
Alejandro Almonacid-Fierro ◽  
Andrew Philominraj ◽  
Rodrigo Vargas-Vitoria ◽  
Manuel Almonacid-

<p style="text-align: justify;">The following article is a qualitative study that analyses the perception of parents and high school students regarding teaching in times of Coronavirus disease COVID-19, with the idea of recognizing the facilitators and barriers for the teaching-learning process in the pandemic. The above, in the understanding that due to the sudden appearance of SARS-CoV-2, educational systems around the world had to adapt to virtual teaching, as a result of the confinement to which the population has been subjected during the year 2020 and a good part of the year 2021. The research is based on the interpretative-comprehensive paradigm, with a qualitative methodology, which considered the realization of four focus groups with students and four focus groups with secondary school parents, from two public high schools located in the province of Talca, Maule region, Chile. The findings of the study are related to the adverse effects of the pandemic on student learning, as a result of connectivity difficulties, and the emotional impact on the quality of life of young people and their families. On the other hand, learning at home is related to limited pedagogical strategies and evaluative aspects that do not allow verifying the real learning of the students.</p>


Author(s):  
نسيمة بنت ربيع اليافعية ◽  
محسن بن ناصر السالمي

The study aimed to identify the trends of Islamic education teachers in the Dhofar Governorate of the Sultanate of Oman towards teaching the topics of the Islamic Faith. The study adopted the qualitative approach using interviews within focus groups, on a sample consisting of (14) teachers, and through analyzing the data, the teachers ’attitudes were classified into four axes: what is related to the topics of the Islamic faith, and what is related to the methods of teaching the Islamic faith and its teaching aids, and what is related to the teacher, and what is related to the student, The results showed that most of the teachers ’attitudes were not positive towards teaching the Islamic Faith in all axes.


Author(s):  
Yolanda Álvarez-Pérez ◽  
Lilisbeth Perestelo-Pérez ◽  
Amado Rivero-Santanta ◽  
Alezandra Torres-Castaño ◽  
Ana Toledo-Chávarri ◽  
...  

Background: Digital health literacy (DHL) increases the self-efficacy and empowerment of pregnant and lactating women (PLW) in using the Internet for health issues. The European project IC-Health aimed to improve DHL among PLW, through the co-creation of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Methods: The co-creation of the MOOCs included focus groups and the creation of communities of practice (CoPs) with PLW and healthcare professionals aimed to co-design the MOOCs. The quantitative measures of MOOCs’ acceptability, experience in the co-creation process and increase in DHL (dimensions of finding, understanding and appraisal) were assessed. Results: 17 PLW participated in focus groups, 113 participants were included in CoPs and 68 participants evaluated the acceptability of MOOCs. A total of 6 MOOCs aimed at improving PLW’s DHL were co-designed. There was a significant improvement in self-perceived DHL after using MOOCs (p-value < 0.001). The acceptability of MOOCs and co-creation experience were positively valued. Conclusions: The preliminary results of the quantitative assessment showed a higher self-perceived DHL after the IC-Health MOOCs. These results suggest that IC-Health MOOCs and the co-creation methodology appear to be a viable process to carry out an intervention aimed to improve DHL levels in European PLW.


10.2196/32458 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e32458
Author(s):  
Jennifer Huberty ◽  
Nishat Bhuiyan ◽  
Taylor Neher ◽  
Lynda Joeman ◽  
Ruben Mesa ◽  
...  

Background Mobile meditation apps may offer a long-term, accessible, and effective solution for ongoing symptom management in cancer patients/survivors. However, there are currently no commercial cancer-specific meditation apps that reflect cancer specialist expertise, input from cancer patients/survivors, and features and content specific to cancer patients’/survivors’ needs. Objective The aim of this study was to gain insight (via surveys, daily journals, and focus groups) from cancer patients/survivors, health care providers, and current subscribers of Calm (a consumer-based mobile meditation app) who were patients/survivors to develop a prototype of a mobile meditation app specifically designed for cancer patients/survivors. Methods Participants were recruited via prior partnerships, word-of-mouth referrals, and recruitment posts on Facebook and Instagram. Cancer patients/survivors and health care providers were instructed to download and use the Calm app for at least 10 minutes a day for 7 days, complete an online daily journal for 7 days, and participate in a virtual focus group (one for cancer patients/survivors and one for providers). Current Calm subscribers who were cancer patients/survivors completed an online survey about different aspects of the Calm app and participated in a third virtual focus group. Data were qualitatively analyzed using a combination of deductive and inductive coding. Results A total of 27 participants (11 cancer patients/survivors, 10 health care providers, 6 current Calm subscribers) completed the study. Similar themes and subthemes were found across surveys, daily journals, and focus groups, and fell into two major categories, content and functionality, with cancer-specific and noncancer-specific themes identified within each category. The majority of content preferences and suggestions that arose were cancer-specific, such as content related to negative emotions or feelings (eg, anxiety, grief, trauma/posttraumatic stress disorder, fear of recurrence, isolation), positive feelings and finding meaning (eg, gratitude, storytelling, acceptance), scenarios and experiences (eg, waiting, treatment-specific mediations), type and stage of cancer journey, and movement modifications. Some of the noncancer-specific themes under app content included sleep, music, and visualizations. In terms of app functionality, the majority of participants expressed interest in having a section/tab/area of the app that was specifically geared toward cancer patients/survivors. Preferences and suggestions for cancer-specific functionality features included options based on symptoms or journey, being able to communicate with other patients or survivors to share suggestions for specific meditations, and having an emergency toolkit for patients/survivors. Conclusions Findings from cancer patients/survivors, health care providers, and current Calm subscribers who were patients/survivors to be incorporated into the development of the prototype fell into two major categories: (1) content of the app and (2) functionality of the app. The prototype’s form and function will be pilot-tested among 30 cancer patients/survivors in a 4-week study, and the resulting feasibility data will be used to inform the final app design and an efficacy study.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Malte Klemmt ◽  
Peter Brieger ◽  
Thomas Schmitt-Schäfer ◽  
Annika Mörtz ◽  
Tanja Henking

Abstract BackgroundIn Germany, the use of coercive measures such as physical or chemical restraints in certain settings has been the focus of high court decisions, political debates, and scientific research in areas like psychiatric care. Such encroachments on fundamental rights could easily be overlooked in the case of residents in inpatient residential care facilities for adults with disabilities. However, little data are available on this issue. This study aims to investigate the types, frequencies, and characteristics of the use of coercive measures as well as the reasons and justifications of their use. Possible alternatives to these measures and contextual conditions will also be identified.MethodsThe study is based on an explorative, multi-phase, cross-sectional design, which consists of a mixed-methods approach including several forms of data collection and analysis bringing together forensic, sociological, pedagogical and medical perspectives and expertise. First, the entirety of the approximately n = 880 residential care facilities for adults with disabilities in the study area will be surveyed by an online questionnaire. Participating passive observations will be carried out in n = 5 selected residential care facilities (24 hours per facility), with an approximate total of n = 150 residents. In these facilities, organizational documents such as house rules and residential documents such as medication plans will also be collected and analysed. Focus groups will be conducted in each of the five facilities including residents, staff, and legal guardians of the residents.DiscussionThis study will address important gaps in the current research by providing different forms of empirical data on the use or avoidance, causes, contexts, and alternatives to coercive measures in inpatient residential care facilities for adults with disabilities. This study is the first in Germany to combine a general overview (survey) and detailed insight (observations, document analysis, focus groups) approach to this issue. These findings will provide a basis for further research in the field as well as for the management of coercive measures in practical settings.


Author(s):  
Brit Paris

Instructor perspectives regarding the challenges they experience in enacting effective feedback processes have not been the focus in the literature on effective feedback processes. This study investigated the challenges that instructors experienced in providing effective feedback to students between January and April 2020, particularly considering campus closures and the shift to online learning in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study consisted of six focus groups held between January and April 2020 with five instructors from different disciplines at the same institution with class sizes ranging from 14 to 82. Through a thematic analysis using a constant comparison method, it was found that the biggest challenges instructors experienced in providing effective feedback was their own workload, the disruption that student inaction on feedback brought to the feedback process, and how the instructors managed their own affective responses and mindsets towards feedback. These findings are discussed within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and based on these findings, recommendations for instructors include considering their own limitations when designing feedback processes and checking their beliefs about feedback with their students’ perspectives on feedback in order to align understanding.


2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marina Kunin ◽  
Mark Timlin ◽  
Chris Lemoh ◽  
David A. Sheffield ◽  
Alana Russo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background In Australia, demand for specialist infectious diseases services exceeds capacity to provide timely management of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in areas of high refugee and asylum seeker settlement. A model for treating LTBI patients in primary care has been developed and piloted in a refugee-focused primary health service (Monash Health Refugee Health and Wellbeing [MHRHW]) and a universal primary care clinic. This study reports on the development and evaluation of the model, focusing on the model feasibility, and barriers and enablers to its success. Methods A convergent mix-methods design was used to evaluate the model for treating LTBI patients in primary care, where a prospective cohort study of patients commencing treatment either at MHRHW or the universal primary care clinic determined the model feasibility, while focus groups with clinicians directly involved in treating these patients explored barriers and enablers to sustainability and success of the model. Results From January 2017 to April 2018, 65 patients with confirmed LTBI presented at participating clinics. Treatment was accepted by 31 (48%) patients, of whom 15(48%) were treated at MHRHW and 16 (52%) at the universal primary care clinic. The 6-months’ treatment completion rate was higher at MHRHW compared to the universal primary care clinic (14 (93%) compared to 9 (56%) respectively, p = 0.0373). Reasons for non-completion included adverse reaction, opting out and relocation. At the completion of the pilot, 15 clinicians participated in two focus groups. Clinicians identified barriers and enablers for successful LTBI management at patient, provider, organisational and clinical levels. While barriers for treatment completion and adherence were consistent across the two pilot sites, enablers, such as resources to facilitate patient education and follow-up, were available only at MHRHW. Conclusion Screening and management of LTBI patients can be achieved within the primary care setting, considerate of barriers and enablers at patient, provider, organisational and clinical levels. Upscaling of a primary care response to the management of LTBI will require supporting primary care clinics with resources to employ dedicated clinical staff for patient education, follow-up communication and monitoring medication adherence.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Trevor Lies ◽  
Glenn Adams

During the year 2020, we were considering the problem of climate change anxiety in the Lawrence, Kansas, and Kansas City metro areas. In September of 2020, we partnered to conduct focus groups with environmentally engaged participants to understand their experience of climate change anxiety. We conducted 14 semi-structured focus groups with 46 community members to understand their emotions, behaviors, and perceptions of community in light of the climate crisis. We asked participants, many of whom were local environmental activists, to engage in a group discussion via Zoom videoconference which lasted between 60 and 90 minutes. After the discussion, we sent participants a brief survey. This executive summary is a preliminary report of the findings of that investigation. We present charts detailing participants’ responses to the focus group questions, followed by select excerpts from the conversations and some statistical relationships of interest.


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