survival time
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nian Liu ◽  
Zekai Lu ◽  
Ying Xie

Background and AimsThere are no accurate statistical data on the relapse rate of drug abstainers after compulsory detoxification in China. This study aimed to collect relapse data for drug abstainers through follow-up visits, verify the effectiveness of professional social worker services and explore significant factors affecting relapse.Design and SettingThe drug abstainers released from Guangzhou T Compulsory Isolated Detoxification Center were randomly divided into two groups. The difference between the experimental group and the control group is that assistance services were provided by social workers to the former.ParticipantsThe study included 510 drug abstainers released from T Center, including 153 in the experimental group and 357 in the control group.MeasurementsDemographic information, history of drug abuse, and motivation for drug rehabilitation (SOCRATES) were collected 1 month prior to drug abstainer release from compulsory detoxification. Then, the relapse situation after their release was tracked according to fixed time points.FindingsThe overall relapse rate of 510 drug abstainers after their release from compulsory detoxification was 47.6%. The average survival time to relapse based on survival analysis was 220 days (N = 486), as calculated with Bayesian estimation by the MCMC method. The average survival times to relapse of the experimental group and control group were 393 and 175 days, respectively. By taking the specific survival time as the dependent variable and the group as the control variable (OR = 25.362), logistic regression analysis showed that marital status (OR = 2.666), previous compulsory detoxification experience (OR = 2.329) and location of household registration (OR = 1.557) had a significant impact on the survival time to relapse.ConclusionsThe occurrence of relapse among drug patients released from compulsory detoxification can be delayed effectively through the intervention of professional social worker services. Regardless of whether patients receive aftercare after compulsory detoxification, drug-using patients who are single, have multiple detoxification experiences and whose households are registered in other provinces deserve special attention. Relevant suggestions to avoid relapse are provided.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Keigo Iizuka ◽  
Kumiko Ishigaki ◽  
Mamiko Seki ◽  
Takahiro Nagumo ◽  
Kei Tamura ◽  

Abstract Background Prostatic cancer is uncommon in dogs. Dogs with prostatic carcinoma have been reported to have a poor prognosis. Information regarding prognosis with various surgery options as well as prognosis with surgical vs. medical treatment is lacking. This retrospective study compares the outcomes of medical management to surgical treatment in dogs with prostatic adenocarcinoma and assesses the surgical outcomes of patients who underwent total prostatectomy (TP) and prostatocystectomy (TPC). The medical records of 41 dogs with prostatic adenocarcinoma, between February 2008 and June 2019, were reviewed for information on signalment, clinical signs in the initial evaluation, preoperative diagnostic imaging findings, treatment type (non-surgical or surgical), surgery type, postoperative complications, adjunctive medical therapy, and survival time. The dogs were divided into non-surgical (n = 12) or surgical (n = 29) groups. The surgical group was subdivided into the TP (n = 20) and TPC (n = 9) subgroups. Results Age was not significantly different between the surgical (median 13.1 years [8.4–15.4] years) and the non-surgical groups (median 10.8 [7.7–15.3] years). Body weight (BW) was also not significantly different between the surgical (median 6.8 kg [2.4–34.5 kg]) and non-surgical groups (median 6.4 kg [3.7–9.12 kg]). The overall median survival time (MST) from the initial evaluation was significantly longer in the surgical than in the non-surgical group (337 vs. 90.5 days). The postoperative MST was significantly longer in the TP group than in the TPC subgroup (510 vs. 83 days). As TPC was performed in cases of tumor progression, its postoperative complications were severe, resulting in a shorter MST. Ten (50%) and 6 patients (30%) in the TP subgroup postoperatively showed mild and severe urinary incontinence, respectively, whereas all patients in TPC subgroup did show severe incontinence. Conclusion Results of the study suggest that surgical treatment of prostatic carcinoma results in longer survival times over medical management alone. In particular, TP might be recommended for improving survival time and quality of life in canine prostatic adenocarcinoma that does not infiltrate the bladder. Early detection is key for a survival advantage with surgical treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Jiang Du ◽  
Xinlei Liu ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Xiaojing Han ◽  
Chunya Ma ◽  

Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by lysosomal storage of free cholesterol. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) is a cyclic oligosaccharide derivative that is being developed to treat NPC1. Recently, metformin was reported to be beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of combined treatment with HPβCD and metformin on Npc1−/− mice. Unfortunately, body weight and survival rates showed that cotreatment with metformin did not extend survival time and increase the body weight of HPβCD-treated Npc1−/− mice. However, cotreatment with metformin reduced inflammatory response and inhibited the proinflammatory cytokine release in the brain, liver and spleen of HPβCD-treated Npc1−/− mice. Furthermore, metformin did not reduce the free cholesterol levels in Npc1−/− brain tissue or fibroblasts. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that metformin does not show beneficial effects on body weight or survival time but reduced the inflammatory response in a mouse model of NPC1 when combined with HPβCD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 518-531
Dwi Nooriqfina ◽  
Sudarno Sudarno ◽  
Rukun Santoso

Log-Logistic Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model is survival analysis that is used when the survival time follows Log-Logistic distribution. Log-Logistic AFT model can be used to estimate survival time, survival function, and hazard function. Log-Logistic AFT model was formed by regressing covariates linierly against the log of survival time. Regression coefficients are estimated using maximum likelihood method. This study uses data from Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) patients, which is a congenital disease with a hole in the wall that separates the top of two chambers of the heart by using sensor type III. Survival time as the response variable, that is the time from patient was diagnosed with ASD until the first relapse and uses age, gender, treatment status (catheterization/surgery), defect size that is the size of the hole in the heart terrace, pulmonary hypertension status, and pain status as predictor variables. The result showed that variable gender, treatment status, defect size, pulmonary hypertension status, and pain status affect the first recurrence of ASD patients, so it is found that category of female, untreated patient, defect size ≥12mm, having pulmonary hypertension, having chest pain tend to have first recurrence sooner than the other category. 

2022 ◽  
Yu Lin ◽  
Zhenyu Wang ◽  
Gang Chen ◽  
Wenge Liu

Abstract Background:Spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma is a rare type of all osteosarcomas,and distant metastasis is an important factor for poor prognosis of this disease. There are no similar studies on prediction of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. We aim to construct and validate a nomogram to predict the risk of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma.Methods:We collected the data on patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results(SEER) database retrospectively. The Kaplan-Meier curve was used to compare differences in survival time between patients with metastasis and non-metastasis. Total patients were randomly divided into training cohort and validation cohort. The risk factor of distant metastasis were identified via the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator(LASSO) regression and multivariate logistic analysis. The nomogram we constructed were validated internally and externally by C-index, calibration curves,receiver operating characteristic(ROC) curve and Decision curve analysis (DCA).Results:The Kaplan-Meier curve showed that the survival time of non-metastatic patients was longer than that of metastatic patients(P<0.001).All patients(n=358) were divided into training cohort(n=269) and validation cohort(n=89).The LASSO regression selected five meaningful variables in the training cohort. The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that surgery(yes,OR=0.175, 95%CI=0.095-0.321,p=0.000) was the independent risk factors for distant metastasis of patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. The C-index and calibration curves showed the good agreement between the predicted results and the actual results. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC) values were 0.748(95%CI=0.687-0.817) and 0.758(95%CI=0.631-0.868) in the training and validation cohorts respectively. The DCA showed that the nomogram has a good clinical usefulness and net benefit.Conclusion:No surgery is the independent risk factor of distant metastasis of spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma. The nomogram we constructed to predict the probability of distant metastasis of patients with spinal and pelvic osteosarcoma is reliable and effective by internal and external verification.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jun Wang ◽  
Jianhui Chen ◽  
Liren Jiang ◽  
Qi Wu ◽  
Dawei Wang

Purpose. Grade-dependent decrease of lipid storage in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) leads to morphology changes in HE sections. This study investigated the role of cytoplasmic features in frozen sections of ccRCC on prognosis using the digital pathology approach. Methods. We established an automatic pipeline that performed tumor region selection, stain vector normalization, nuclei segmentation, and feature extraction based on the pathologic data from Shanghai General Hospital and The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Extracted features were subjected to survival analysis. Results. Kurtosis of the cytoplasm in the hematoxylin channel was correlated with progression-free survival (HR 0.10, 95% CI: 0.04–0.24, p = 6.52 ∗ 10 − 7 ) and overall survival (HR 0.11, 95% CI: 0.05–0.31, p = 1.72 ∗ 10 − 5 ) in ccRCC, which outperformed other texture features in this analysis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that low kurtosis of cytoplasm in the hematoxylin channel was an independent predictor for a shorter progression-free survival time ( p = 0.044 ) and overall survival time (p = 0.01). Kaplan–Meier survival analysis of progression-free survival and overall survival also showed a significantly worse prognosis in patients with low kurtosis of the cytoplasm in the hematoxylin channel (both p < 0.0001 ). Lower kurtosis of cytoplasm in the hematoxylin channel was associated with higher pathologic grade, less cholesterol ester, and more mitochondrial DNA content. Conclusion. Kurtosis of the cytoplasm in the hematoxylin channel predicts survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Zi-Meng Wang ◽  
Zuo-Lin Xiang

Background: Parotid gland adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (PANOS) is a rare malignant tumor with limited data on its characteristics and prognosis. This research is aimed at characterizing PANOS and developing prognostic prediction models for patients with PANOS.Methods: Cases from 2004–2016 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program database. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression were applied to ascertain the factors associated with survival. Competing risk analysis and Gray's tests were employed to analyze cancer-specific death. Propensity score matching (1:1) was conducted to reduce the influence of confounding variables.Results: A total of 446 patients with a median age of 66 years were selected, of which 307 were diagnosed with stage III/IV PANOS. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of all patients was 51.8%, and the median survival time was 66 months. Surgical treatment clearly improved survival time (p &lt; 0.001). In the subgroup analysis, radiotherapy showed survival benefits in patients with stage III/IV disease (p &lt; 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that age, T classification, N classification, M classification and surgery were independent prognostic indicators for OS; T classification, N classification, M classification and surgery were independent risk factors for cancer-specific survival (CSS). In addition, age was independently associated with other cause-specific death. Based on the results of multivariate analysis, two nomograms were developed and verified by the concordance index (C-index) (0.747 and 0.780 for OS and CSS) and the area under the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.756, 0.764, and 0.819 regarding for nomograms predicting 3-, 5-, and 10- year OS, respectively and 0.794, 0.789, and 0.806 for CSS, respectively).Conclusions: Our study clearly presents the clinicopathological features and survival analysis of patients with PANOS. In addition, our constructed nomogram prediction models may assist physicians in evaluating the individualized prognosis and deciding on treatment for patients.

2022 ◽  
pp. 089875642110723
Matthew L. Raleigh ◽  
Mark M. Smith ◽  
Kendall Taney

Medical records were searched for dogs that had received curative intent surgery for oral malignant melanoma and ipsilateral excisional regional lymph node biopsy. Twenty-seven dogs were operated on and 25 dogs of these dogs met the inclusion criteria of signalment, post-excision margin status, presence of metastasis for each biopsied lymphocentrum, survival time post-excision, presence of recurrence or metastasis at follow-up or at death/euthanasia, location of the primary tumor, and any postoperative adjuvant treatment. These 25 dogs had complete tumor excision with tumor-free margins and 19 (76%) had postoperative adjuvant therapy. Median survival time after excision for the dogs in this study was 335.5 days. Results of this study support previous work that documents prolonged survival time following complete excision of oral malignant melanoma with tumor-free surgical margins in dogs. Additionally, 4 dogs (16%) had histologically confirmed regional lymph node metastasis at the time of definitive surgery.

Xiao-Bo Li ◽  
Rui Zhu ◽  
Tian-Ci Yi ◽  
Jian-Jun Guo ◽  
Dao-Chao Jin

The ability to endure starvation is important for predatory mite survival and its effectiveness as biological control agent. We studied the longevity and functional response of the prodator mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregaor) under starvation stress. N. californicus individuals were treated as three groups: the mites were provided with nothing (group I), with fresh bean leaves (group II), and with water (group III) to the larvae, protonymphs, deutonymphs, adult males and females. Functional response of N. californicus to Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs was evaluated after starvation for 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Results showed that all life stages of N. californicus in group III had the longest survival time among the three groups. Adult females had the strongest ability to endure starvation with a mean survival time of 8.16 d. Females had the ability to lay eggs, but the number of eggs laid was less than a mean of 1.2 eggs per female in the three starvation groups. N. californicus exhibited a Holling’s Type II functional response at all hunger levels. The handling time (Th) and attack rate (α) of the predator were not significantly different in all hunger levels. Predation rate of starved 0 h to 72 h initially increased and then decreased. The highest predation rate was recorded when the predators were starved for 24 h.

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