viral entry
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Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Author(s):  
Hirohito Ogawa ◽  
Daisuke Fujikura ◽  
Hikaru Namba ◽  
Nobuko Yamashita ◽  
Tomoyuki Honda ◽  
...  

Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) is a T-lymphotropic virus and the etiological agent of exanthem subitum. HHV-6B is present in a latent or persistent form after primary infection and is produced in the salivary glands or transmitted to this organ. Infected individuals continue to secrete the virus in their saliva, which is thus considered a source for virus transmission. HHV-6B primarily propagates in T cells because its entry receptor, CD134, is mainly expressed by activated T cells. The virus then spreads to the host’s organs, including the salivary glands, nervous system, and liver. However, CD134 expression is not detected in these organs. Therefore, HHV-6B may be entering cells via a currently unidentified cell surface molecule, but the mechanisms for this have not yet been investigated. In this study, we investigated a CD134-independent virus entry mechanism in the parotid-derived cell line HSY. First, we confirmed viral infection in CD134-membrane unanchored HSY cells. We then determined that nectin cell adhesion molecule 2 (nectin-2) mediated virus entry and that HHV-6B-insensitive T-cells transduced with nectin-2 were transformed into virus-permissive cells. We also found that virus entry was significantly reduced in nectin-2 knockout parotid-derived cells. Furthermore, we showed that HHV-6B glycoprotein B (gB) interacted with the nectin-2 V-set domain. The results suggest that nectin-2 acts as an HHV-6B entry-mediated protein.


Author(s):  
Jieqiong Wang ◽  
Huiying Zhao ◽  
Youzhong An

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a transmembrane glycoprotein, is an important part of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In the COVID-19 epidemic, it was found to be the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2). ACE2 maintains homeostasis by inhibiting the Ang II-AT1R axis and activating the Ang I (1-7)-MasR axis, protecting against lung, heart and kidney injury. In addition, ACE2 helps transport amino acids across the membrane. ACE2 sheds from the membrane, producing soluble ACE2 (sACE2). Previous studies have pointed out that sACE2 plays a role in the pathology of the disease, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Recent studies have confirmed that sACE2 can also act as the receptor of SARS-COV-2, mediating viral entry into the cell and then spreading to the infective area. Elevated concentrations of sACE2 are more related to disease. Recombinant human ACE2, an exogenous soluble ACE2, can be used to supplement endogenous ACE2. It may represent a potent COVID-19 treatment in the future. However, the specific administration concentration needs to be further investigated.


Epigenomics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Milad Shirvaliloo

Smoking could predispose individuals to a more severe COVID-19 by upregulating a particular gene known as mdig, which is mediated through a number of well-known histone modifications. Smoking might regulate the transcription-activating H3K4me3 mark, along with the transcription-repressing H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 marks, in a way to favor SARS-CoV-2 entry by enhancing the expression of ACE2, NRP1 and NRP2, AT1R, CTSD and CTSL, PGE2 receptors 2–4, SLC6A20 and IL-6, all of which interact either directly or indirectly with important receptors, facilitating viral entry in COVID-19.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 838
Author(s):  
Bahaa Jawad ◽  
Puja Adhikari ◽  
Kun Cheng ◽  
Rudolf Podgornik ◽  
Wai-Yim Ching

A rational therapeutic strategy is urgently needed for combating SARS-CoV-2 infection. Viral infection initiates when the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) binds to the ACE2 receptor, and thus, inhibiting RBD is a promising therapeutic for blocking viral entry. In this study, the structure of lead antiviral candidate binder (LCB1), which has three alpha-helices (H1, H2, and H3), is used as a template to design and simulate several miniprotein RBD inhibitors. LCB1 undergoes two modifications: structural modification by truncation of the H3 to reduce its size, followed by single and double amino acid substitutions to enhance its binding with RBD. We use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations supported by ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Complete binding profiles of all miniproteins with RBD have been determined. The MD investigations reveal that the H3 truncation results in a small inhibitor with a −1.5 kcal/mol tighter binding to RBD than original LCB1, while the best miniprotein with higher binding affinity involves D17R or E11V + D17R mutation. DFT calculations provide atomic-scale details on the role of hydrogen bonding and partial charge distribution in stabilizing the minibinder:RBD complex. This study provides insights into general principles for designing potential therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2.


2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010171
Author(s):  
Judith Grau-Expósito ◽  
David Perea ◽  
Marina Suppi ◽  
Núria Massana ◽  
Ander Vergara ◽  
...  

The development of physiological models that reproduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in primary human cells will be instrumental to identify host-pathogen interactions and potential therapeutics. Here, using cell suspensions directly from primary human lung tissues (HLT), we have developed a rapid platform for the identification of viral targets and the expression of viral entry factors, as well as for the screening of viral entry inhibitors and anti-inflammatory compounds. The direct use of HLT cells, without long-term cell culture and in vitro differentiation approaches, preserves main immune and structural cell populations, including the most susceptible cell targets for SARS-CoV-2; alveolar type II (AT-II) cells, while maintaining the expression of proteins involved in viral infection, such as ACE2, TMPRSS2, CD147 and AXL. Further, antiviral testing of 39 drug candidates reveals a highly reproducible method, suitable for different SARS-CoV-2 variants, and provides the identification of new compounds missed by conventional systems, such as VeroE6. Using this method, we also show that interferons do not modulate ACE2 expression, and that stimulation of local inflammatory responses can be modulated by different compounds with antiviral activity. Overall, we present a relevant and rapid method for the study of SARS-CoV-2.


2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (4) ◽  
pp. e2117576119
Author(s):  
Bo Yang ◽  
Yuanyuan Jia ◽  
Yumin Meng ◽  
Ying Xue ◽  
Kefang Liu ◽  
...  

After binding to its cell surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enters the host cell through directly fusing with plasma membrane (cell surface pathway) or undergoing endocytosis traveling to lysosome/late endosome for membrane fusion (endocytic pathway). However, the endocytic entry regulation by host cell remains elusive. Recent studies show ACE2 possesses a type I PDZ binding motif (PBM) through which it could interact with a PDZ domain-containing protein such as sorting nexin 27 (SNX27). In this study, we determined the ACE2-PBM/SNX27-PDZ complex structure, and, through a series of functional analyses, we found SNX27 plays an important role in regulating the homeostasis of ACE2 receptor. More importantly, we demonstrated SNX27, together with retromer complex (the core component of the endosomal protein sorting machinery), prevents ACE2/virus complex from entering lysosome/late endosome, resulting in decreased viral entry in cells where the endocytic pathway dominates. The ACE2/virus retrieval mediated by SNX27–retromer could be considered as a countermeasure against invasion of ACE2 receptor-using SARS coronaviruses.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jibin K Varughese ◽  
Kavitha J ◽  
Sindhu K S ◽  
Dhiya Francis ◽  
Joseph Libin K L ◽  
...  

Abstract The alarming increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths calls for an urgent cost-effective pharmacological approach. Here, we examine the inhibitory activity of a group of dietary bioactive flavonoids against the human protease TMPRSS2, which plays a major role in SARS CoV-2 viral entry. After the molecular docking studies of a large number of flavonoids, four compounds with high binding scores were selected and studied in detail. The binding affinities of these four ligands, Amentoflavone, Narirutin, Eriocitrin, and Naringin, at the active site of TMPRSS2 target were investigated using MD simulations followed by MM-PBSA binding energy calculations. From the studies, a number of significant hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the ligands and binding site amino residues of TMPRSS2 are identified which showcase their excellent inhibitory activity against TMPRSS2. Among these ligands, Amentoflavone and Narirutin showed MM-PBSA binding energy values of -155.48 and -138.13 kJ/mol respectively. Our previous studies of the inhibitory activity of these compounds against main protease of SARS-COV2 and the present study on TMPRSS2 strongly highlighted that Amentoflavone and Naringin can exhibit promising multi-target activity against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, due to their wide availability, no side effects and low cost, these compounds could be recommended as dietary supplements for COVID patients or for the development of SARS-CoV-2 treatments.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mehmet Altay Unal ◽  
Omur Besbinar ◽  
Hasan Nazir ◽  
Gokce Yagmur Summak ◽  
Fatma Bayrakdar ◽  
...  

Since the first cases the coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) reported in December 2019, worldwide continuous efforts have been placed both for the prevention and treatment of this infectious disease. As new variants of the virus emerge, the need for an effective antiviral treatment continues. The concept of preventing SARS-CoV-2 on both pre-entry and post-entry stages has not been much studied. Therefore, we compared the antiviral activities of three antiviral drugs which have been currently used in the clinic. In silico docking analyses and in vitro viral infection in Vero E6 cells were performed to delineate their antiviral effectivity when used alone or in combination. Both in silico and in vitro results suggest that the combinatorial treatment by favipiravir and umifenovir or camostat mesylate has more antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 rather than single drug treatment. These results suggest that inhibiting both viral entry and viral replication at the same time is much more effective for the antiviral treatment of SARS-CoV-2.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Guiqing Hu ◽  
Mark A Silveria ◽  
Michael S Chapman ◽  
Scott M Stagg

Recombinant forms of adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are vectors of choice in the development of treatments for a number of genetic dispositions. Greater understanding of AAV's molecular virology is needed to underpin needed improvements in efficiency and specificity. Recent advances have included identification of a near universal entry receptor, AAVR, and structures by cryo-electron microscopy (EM) single particle analysis (SPA) that revealed, at high resolution, only the domains of AAVR most tightly bound to AAV. Here, cryogenic electron tomography (cryo-ET) is applied to reveal the neighboring domains of the flexible receptor. For AAV5, where the PKD1 domain is bound strongly, PKD2 is seen in three configurations extending away from the virus. AAV2 binds tightly to the PKD2 domain at a distinct site, and cryo-ET now reveals four configurations of PKD1, all different from that seen in AAV5. The AAV2 receptor complex also shows unmodeled features on the inner surface that appear to be an equilibrium alternate configuration. Other AAV structures start near the 5-fold axis, but now β-strand A is the minor conformer and, for the major conformer, partially ordered N-termini near the 2-fold axis join the canonical capsid jellyroll fold at the βA-βB turn. The addition of cryo-ET is revealing unappreciated complexity that is likely relevant to viral entry and to the development of improved gene therapy vectors. IMPORTANCE: With 150 clinical trials for 30 diseases underway, AAV is a leading gene therapy vector. Immunotoxicity at high doses used to overcome inefficient transduction, has occasionally proven fatal and highlighted gaps in fundamental virology. AAV enters cells, interacting through distinct sites with different domains of the AAVR receptor, according to AAV clade. Single domains are resolved in structures by cryogenic electron microscopy. Here, the adjoining domains are revealed by cryo-electron tomography of AAV2 and AAV5 complexes. They are in flexible configurations interacting minimally with AAV, despite measurable dependence of AAV2 transduction on both domains.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Author(s):  
Sophia S. Borisevich ◽  
Edward M. Khamitov ◽  
Maxim A. Gureev ◽  
Olga I. Yarovaya ◽  
Nadezhda B. Rudometova ◽  
...  

In this work, we evaluated the antiviral activity of Arbidol (Umifenovir) against SARS-CoV-2 using a pseudoviral system with the glycoprotein S of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on its surface. In order to search for binding sites to protein S of the virus, we described alternative binding sites of Arbidol in RBD and in the ACE-2-RBD complex. As a result of our molecular dynamics simulations combined with molecular docking data, we note the following fact: wherever the molecules of Arbidol bind, the interaction of the latter affects the structural flexibility of the protein. This interaction may result both in a change in the shape of the domain–enzyme binding interface and simply in a change in the structural flexibility of the domain, which can subsequently affect its affinity to the enzyme. In addition, we examined the possibility of Arbidol binding in the stem part of the surface protein. The possibility of Arbidol binding in different parts of the protein is not excluded. This may explain the antiviral activity of Arbidol. Our results could be useful for researchers searching for effective SARS-CoV-2 virus inhibitors targeting the viral entry stage.


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