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10.29007/r6cd ◽  
2022 ◽  
Hoang Nhut Huynh ◽  
My Duyen Nguyen ◽  
Thai Hong Truong ◽  
Quoc Tuan Nguyen Diep ◽  
Anh Tu Tran ◽  

Segmentation is one of the most common methods for analyzing and processing medical images, assisting doctors in making accurate diagnoses by providing detailed information about the required body part. However, segmenting medical images presents a number of challenges, including the need for medical professionals to be trained, the fact that it is time-consuming and prone to errors. As a result, it appears that an automated medical image segmentation system is required. Deep learning algorithms have recently demonstrated superior performance for segmentation tasks, particularly semantic segmentation networks that provide a pixel-level understanding of images. U- Net for image segmentation is one of the modern complex networks in the field of medical imaging; several segmentation networks have been built on its foundation with the advancements of Recurrent Residual convolutional units and the construction of recurrent residual convolutional neural network based on U-Net (R2U-Net). R2U-Net is used to perform trachea and bronchial segmentation on a dataset of 36,000 images. With a variety of experiments, the proposed segmentation resulted in a dice-coefficient of 0.8394 on the test dataset. Finally, a number of research issues are raised, indicating the need for future improvements.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262511
Tae Ran Ahn ◽  
Yu Mi Jeong ◽  
So Hyun Park ◽  
Ji Young Jeon ◽  
Sheen-Woo Lee ◽  

Purpose We aimed to analyze the prevalence, causes, and clinical settings of 4-year critical radiologic reports (CRRs) notified from the musculoskeletal section of the radiology department. Then, we investigated the communication outcomes. Methods This study was approved by our institutional review board. We retrospectively included 175 musculoskeletal CRRs from our database between January 2017 and December 2020. The CRRs were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists, who categorized the CRRs by clinical setting (emergency department(ED) patient, outpatient, and inpatient), body part, type of image modality, reason for CRR, incidental lesion, and clinical outcome. The clinical outcome was retrieved from the electronic medical records. Results The 175 musculoskeletal CRRs accounted for 5.4% of the CRRs (n = 3217) available in the study period. Most CRRs (94.9%, 166/175) corresponded to the musculoskeletal system, while the remaining ones (5.1%, 9/175) corresponded to the non-musculoskeletal system. In addition, the spine, extremities, and thoracic cage accounted for 52.6%, 40.6%, and 1.7% of the musculoskeletal CRRs, respectively. Moreover, most patients presented to the ED (50.3%, 88/175), followed by inpatients (30.9%, 54/175), and outpatients (18.9%, 33/175). The CRR reasons included missed fracture (54.3%), suspected malignancy (16%), clinical emergency (10.3%), unexpected infection/inflammation (11.4%), and others (8%). Furthermore, 11 (6.3%) incidental lesions were not related to the primary imaging purpose. Referring clinicians actively acknowledged 80% of the CRRs. The loss to follow-up action was the highest in the ED patients (35.2%, 31/88; p < 0.001), being significantly higher than that in outpatients (6.1%, 2/33) and inpatients (3.7%, 2/54). Conclusion Missed fractures were the most common cause of musculoskeletal CRRs. ED showed prevalence in musculoskeletal CRRs and reflected the highest loss to follow-up action. ED physicians should pay more attention to CRRs to enhance patient care.

2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Kotchakorn Jumroenketpratheep ◽  
Htet Zayar ◽  
Kittinad Kaewkul ◽  
Kornkit Chaijenkij

Background: Injury and illness surveillance in sports is the first step of the injury prevention model that generates effective injury prevention measures. Objectives: To identify the incidence, severity, and causes of injuries and illness in the Thailand national team during the 30th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. Methods: All medical encounters were documented using the International Olympic Committee (IOC) injury and illness surveillance system for multi-sport events. We recorded the daily occurrence of injuries and illnesses reported by Thailand’s medical teams over the 12 days of the competition period. Results: Among 980 Thai athletes (568 male and 412 female), that participated in the 30th SEA Games, a total of 105 injuries and illnesses were reported. There were 84 injuries and 21 illnesses which equated to an incidence of 86 injuries and 21 illnesses per 1000 athletes. The most commonly injured body part was the lower leg (14% of all injuries), followed by the shoulder and clavicle. Ligament sprain or rupture and contusion (25% of all injuries) were reported as the most common type of injury. Of all injuries, 56 were classified as needing medical attention (only), 26 caused performance restriction, and two caused complete-time loss. The most common athlete illness was respiratory illness (48% of all illnesses) followed by gastrointestinal illness (19% of all illnesses). One-third (7 out of 21) of athlete illnesses restricted the athlete's performance, and the remaining 14 only required medical attention. Conclusions: Overall, 8% of athletes incurred at least one injury during the competition, and 2% suffered from an illness. Lower leg injury and respiratory illness were the most common, which is similar to other multi-sport events. Based on the research data, injury prevention, especially of ligamentous sprain and lower limb injuries, should be the focus in multi-sport events.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 177
Huayong Lv ◽  
Defeng Wang ◽  
Zhanbo Cheng ◽  
Yaning Zhang ◽  
Tao Zhou

There are normally pre-existing cracks that can be observed in the coal seam and immediate roof that influences the stability of the rib spalling and the movement law of overlying strata. In this study, comprehensive research methods (e.g., theory analysis, experimental tests and numerical simulations) were adopted to reveal the mechanical characteristics, acoustic emission behaviors and failure modes of a coal–mudstone combined body with a single prefabricated non-penetrating crack. The results show that the influence of the crack angle on the elastic modulus of the coal–mudstone combined body samples was limited. With the increase in the crack angle, the unconfined compressive strength of samples decreased first and then increased in a V-shaped trend. In addition, the minimum unconfined compressive strength could be observed at a crack angle of 45°. Moreover, the number of acoustic emissions significantly increased with the process of continuous loading. In addition, the stress reduction zone could be observed in both ends of the prefabricated cracks at the initial stage of loading. The high- and low-stress zones were transformed with the process of continuous loading. Under an unconfined compression test, the failure models of the coal body part in the samples were mainly caused by shear failure, and only a few cracks occurred in the upper tip of the prefabricated cracks of the mudstone part. Therefore, airfoil cracks could be observed in the samples due to the strength difference of the coal mass and mudstone.

Séverine Sabia ◽  
Manasa Shanta Yerramalla ◽  
Teresa Liu-Ambrose

AbstractAccelerometers measure the acceleration of the body part they are attached and allow to estimate time spent in activity levels (sedentary behaviour, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and sleep over a 24-h period for several consecutive days. These advantages come with the challenges to analyse the large amount of data while integrating dimensions of both physical activity/sedentary behaviour and sleep domains. This commentary raises the questions of 1) how to classify sleep breaks (i.e. wake after sleep onset) during the night within the 24-h movement behaviour framework and 2) how to assess their impact on health while also accounting for night time sleep duration and time in sedentary behaviour and physical activity during the day. The authors advocate for future collaborations between researchers from the physical activity/sedentary behaviour and sleep research fields to ensure appropriate analysis and interpretation of the tremendous amount of data recorded by the newer generation accelerometers. This is the only way forward to provide meaningfully accurate evidence to inform future 24-h movement behaviour guidelines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 65-72
Ade Reza Ismawan ◽  
Rifky Ismail ◽  
Tony Prahasto ◽  
Mochammad Ariyanto ◽  
Budi Setiyana

Transtibial and transfemoral amputations are the most common amputations in the world, loss of lower extremity result in impaired function extremities and also body balance. A prosthesis is a medical device designed to replace a specific body part to restore function to a body part lost due to an accident or disease. Most doctors strongly recommend the use of a prosthesis so that patients can return to normal activities after undergoing an amputation. Besides functioning to support beauty, the use of prostheses is also to restore the quality of life of prosthetic users, the issue of metabolic energy consumption when walking is also very important in designing transtibial bionic prosthesis because it involves the comfort of the user transtibial prosthesis. Most of the existing transtibial prosthesis products in Indonesia are conventional passive transtibial foot products, and passive prosthesis users show a limp or asymmetrical gait pattern so that conventional passive prosthesis users experience discomfort when walking in the form of pain in the amputated leg and normal foot, which can cause secondary musculoskeletal injuries such as joint disorders. Passive prostheses cannot generate propulsive force during push-off phase (terminal stance and preswing) of the human gait cycle. The use of passive prostheses can also consume 20-30% more metabolic energy while walking so that it can cause fatigue for the user. Transtibial bionic prosthesis research is growing, transtibial bionic prosthesis can overcome the weakness of passive prosthesis because it can produce push-off during gait cycle and several researchers have shown that bionic prostheses are capable of mimicking the human gait, as well as improve the  performance in a more natural gait and normal walking. This study aims to study the existing transtibial bionic prosthesis by comparing between 6 existing designs of powered ankle or transtibial bionic prosthesis that have been published in several publications. The discussion focuses on the design and mechanical systems, actuators related to the selection of motors and drive mechanisms as well as power transmission from actuators to moving components.

Elena Amoruso ◽  
Lucy Dowdall ◽  
Mathew Thomas Kollamkulam ◽  
Obioha Ukaegbu ◽  
Paulina Kieliba ◽  

Abstract Objective Considerable resources are being invested to enhance the control and usability of artificial limbs through the delivery of unnatural forms of somatosensory feedback. Here, we investigated whether intrinsic somatosensory information from the body part(s) remotely controlling an artificial limb can be leveraged by the motor system to support control and skill learning. Approach In a placebo-controlled design, we used local anaesthetic to attenuate somatosensory inputs to the big toes while participants learned to operate through pressure sensors a toe-controlled and hand-worn robotic extra finger. Motor learning outcomes were compared against a control group who received sham anaesthetic and quantified in three different task scenarios: while operating in isolation from, in synchronous coordination, and collaboration with, the biological fingers. Main results Both groups were able to learn to operate the robotic extra finger, presumably due to abundance of visual feedback and other relevant sensory cues. Importantly, the availability of displaced somatosensory cues from the distal bodily controllers facilitated the acquisition of isolated robotic finger movements, the retention and transfer of synchronous hand-robot coordination skills, and performance under cognitive load. Motor performance was not impaired by toes anaesthesia when tasks involved close collaboration with the biological fingers, indicating that the motor system can close the sensory feedback gap by dynamically integrating task-intrinsic somatosensory signals from multiple, and even distal, body- parts. Significance Together, our findings demonstrate that there are multiple natural avenues to provide intrinsic surrogate somatosensory information to support motor control of an artificial body part, beyond artificial stimulation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2102233118
Luke E. Miller ◽  
Cécile Fabio ◽  
Malika Azaroual ◽  
Dollyane Muret ◽  
Robert J. van Beers ◽  

Perhaps the most recognizable sensory map in all of neuroscience is the somatosensory homunculus. Although it seems straightforward, this simple representation belies the complex link between an activation in a somatotopic map and the associated touch location on the body. Any isolated activation is spatially ambiguous without a neural decoder that can read its position within the entire map, but how this is computed by neural networks is unknown. We propose that the somatosensory system implements multilateration, a common computation used by surveying and global positioning systems to localize objects. Specifically, to decode touch location on the body, multilateration estimates the relative distance between the afferent input and the boundaries of a body part (e.g., the joints of a limb). We show that a simple feedforward neural network, which captures several fundamental receptive field properties of cortical somatosensory neurons, can implement a Bayes-optimal multilateral computation. Simulations demonstrated that this decoder produced a pattern of localization variability between two boundaries that was unique to multilateration. Finally, we identify this computational signature of multilateration in actual psychophysical experiments, suggesting that it is a candidate computational mechanism underlying tactile localization.

2022 ◽  
pp. 620-642
Suchismita Satapathy

Risk factors related to work activity and ergonomics can enhance the probability that some persons may develop a MSD (musculoskeletal disorder). Usually the MSD develops due to high task repetition, forceful exertion, and repetitive/sustained awkward postures. MSD is also found in some cases where workers are engaged with working in awkward postures, cold temperatures, contact stress, heavy load, static postures, and vibration, etc. Many studies explain the problems for MSD, but in this chapter an effort is taken to rank the maximum body movement and body parts as per the different types of work flow system such that ergonomics design can be planned. Physical disorders can be avoided by finding and ranking the difficult task and the affected body part due to that kind of work. The prioritization of task will help the organization to think of sustainable designs of working procedure or instruments or machines to provide maximum comfort to humankind. It may also help to frame policies for occupational safety and hazards in workplace.

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