In this work, new crosslinked pyridinium poly ionic liquid and its magnetite hybrid structured composite were prepared and applied to remove the toxic dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB-R250) from aqueous solutions. In this respect, vinyl pyridine, maleic anhydride, and dibromo nonane were used to prepare crosslinked quaternized vinyl pyridinium/maleic anhydride ionic liquid (CQVP-MA). Furthermore, a linear copolymer was prepared by the reaction of vinyl pyridine with bromo nonane followed by its copolymerization with maleic anhydride in order to use it as a capping agent for magnetite nanoparticles. The monodisperse MNPs were incorporated into the crosslinked PIL (CQVP-MA) by ultrasonication to prepare CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 composite to facilitate its recovery using an external magnetic field and enhance its adsorption capacity. The chemical structures, thermal stabilities, zeta potential, particle size, EDS, and SEM of the prepared CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were investigated. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and mechanisms of CB-R250 elimination from aqueous solutions using CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were also studied, and the results revealed that the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were the most suitable to describe the CBB adsorption from an aqueous solution. The adsorption capacities of CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were found to be 1040 and 1198, respectively, which are more than those for previously reported material in the literature with reasonable stability for five cycles.
The nanocellulose fibril produced by using natural sources can be used in developing sustainable and green products. The useful features of nanocellulose fibril can include valuable physical properties, appropriate surface chemistry, low toxicity, and biocompatibility. The study presented shows the use of polylactic acid with five different percentages of nanocellulose fibril and the use of 3% maleic anhydride as a coupling agent. The maleic anhydride acts as coupling agent which improves the thermochemical and thermomechanical characteristics of the end product. The addition of 3% maleic anhydride as coupling agent with 10% nanocellulose fibril improved the impact strength up to 14.3%, elastic modulus up to 40.6%, and tensile strength up to 30.1%. Furthermore, the dynamic mechanical analysis result indicates that the inclusion of maleic anhydride improved the toughness by reducing the
peak and increases the storage modulus. Finally, the scanning electron micrograph shows that the interfacial compatibility between nanocellulose fibril and polylactic acid matrix is improved with the addition of maleic anhydride.
The possibility of modification of oxidized petroleum bitumen 70/100 produced by JSC "Ukrtatnafta" (Kremenchuk, Ukraine) with maleic anhydride was studied. The influence of maleic anhydride amount, process duration, and temperature on the main physical and mechanical characteristics of modified bitumen was studied. The optimal amount of maleic anhydride introduction to bitumen was established. It is found that 2 wt. % maleic anhydride allows to increase the softening temperature of the modified bitumen (from 46 °C to 52 °C). Adhesion to crushed stone also increases (from 2.5 points to 4.5 points) and other indicators improve. Sufficient time to modify the bitumen with maleic anhydride was 30 minutes. The optimum modification temperature for obtaining the modified bitumen with maleic anhydride is 130 °C. Increasing the temperature of the modification has a negative effect on the final physical and mechanical properties of the binder.
Maleic anhydride was chemically attached to depolymerized natural rubber, and the product was named as carboxy-terminated liquid natural rubber (CTNR). The CTNR can act as a potential plasticizer in chloroprene (CR) vulcanizates. This paper describes the use of commercial nano silica (NS) as a promising cost-effective filler, which can enhance the tensile properties and ageing resistance of the CR vulcanizates incorporated with CTNR (CR-CTNR). The enhancement in properties may be attributed to the increased bound-rubber content owing to the large surface area of the nano-sized filler. The characteristics of the NS-filled CR vulcanizates containing CTNR (NS CR-CTNR) were compared with those containing amorphous silica. The NS CR-CTNR vulcanizates showed superior ageing and oil resistance due to the finer rubber filler interaction modified by ionic cross linking.