order kinetic
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2022 ◽  
Vol 175 ◽  
pp. 106500
D. Ventura ◽  
R. Rapisarda ◽  
L. Sciuto ◽  
M. Milani ◽  
S. Consoli ◽  

M. J. Fernández-Rodríguez ◽  
J. M. Mancilla-Leytón ◽  
D. de la Lama-Calvente ◽  
R. Borja

AbstractThis research was carried out with the aim to evaluate the anaerobic digestion (AD) of llama and dromedary dungs (both untreated and trampled) in batch mode at mesophilic temperature (35 °C). The biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests with an inoculum to substrate ratio of 2:1 (as volatile solids (VS)) were carried out. The methane yield from trampled llama dung (333.0 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded) was considerably higher than for raw llama, raw and trampled dromedary dungs (185.9, 228.4, 222.9 mL CH4 g−1 VSadded, respectively). Therefore, trampled llama dung was found to be the best substrate for methane production due to its high content of volatile solids as well as its high nitrogen content (2.1%) and more appropriate C/N ratio (23.6) for AD. The experimental data was found to be in accordance with both first-order kinetic and transference function mathematical models, when evaluating the experimental methane production against time. By applying the first-order kinetic model, the hydrolysis rate constants, kh, were found to be 19% and 11% higher for trampled dungs in comparison with the raw dung of dromedary and llama, respectively. In addition, the maximum methane production rate (Rm) derived from the transference function model for trampled llama dung (22.0 mL CH4 g−1 VS d−1) was 83.3%, 24.4% and 22.9% higher than those obtained for raw llama manure and for raw and trampled dromedary dungs, respectively.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 329
Mohd Hafiz Abu Bakar ◽  
Nur Hidayah Azeman ◽  
Nadhratun Naiim Mobarak ◽  
Nur Afifah Ahmad Nazri ◽  
Tengku Hasnan Tengku Abdul Aziz ◽  

This research investigates the physicochemical properties of biopolymer succinyl-κ-carrageenan as a potential sensing material for NH4+ Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) sensor. Succinyl-κ-carrageenan was synthesised by reacting κ-carrageenan with succinic anhydride. FESEM analysis shows succinyl-κ-carrageenan has an even and featureless topology compared to its pristine form. Succinyl-κ-carrageenan was composited with silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as LSPR sensing material. AFM analysis shows that AgNP-Succinyl-κ-carrageenan was rougher than AgNP-Succinyl-κ-carrageenan, indicating an increase in density of electronegative atom from oxygen compared to pristine κ-carrageenan. The sensitivity of AgNP-Succinyl-κ-carrageenan LSPR is higher than AgNP-κ-carrageenan LSPR. The reported LOD and LOQ of AgNP-Succinyl-κ-carrageenan LSPR are 0.5964 and 2.7192 ppm, respectively. Thus, AgNP-Succinyl-κ-carrageenan LSPR has a higher performance than AgNP-κ-carrageenan LSPR, broader detection range than the conventional method and high selectivity toward NH4+. Interaction mechanism studies show the adsorption of NH4+ on κ-carrageenan and succinyl-κ-carrageenan were through multilayer and chemisorption process that follows Freundlich and pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Yan Sun ◽  
Xiaojun Song ◽  
Jing Ma ◽  
Haochen Yu ◽  
Gangjun Liu ◽  

The polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite was synthesized through solution polymerization and was modified with NH2OH·HCl. The amidoxime-modified polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite demonstrated excellent adsorption capacity for Zn2+ in an aqueous medium. Fourier transform-Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the prepared materials. The results showed that the resulting amidoxime-modified polyacrylonitrile/fly ash composite was able to effectively remove Zn2+ at pH 4–6. Adsorption of Zn2+ was hindered by the coexisting cations. The adsorption kinetics of Zn2+ by Zn2+ followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The adsorption process also satisfactorily fit the Langmuir model, and the adsorption process was mainly single layer. The Gibbs free energy ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 were negative, indicating the adsorption was a spontaneous, exothermic, and high degree of order in solution system.

Metals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 149
Chunhui Zheng ◽  
Chunlin He ◽  
Yingjie Yang ◽  
Toyohisa Fujita ◽  
Guifang Wang ◽  

The continuous expansion of the market demand and scale of commercial amidoxime chelating resins has caused large amounts of resin to be discarded around the world. In this study, the waste amidoxime chelating resin was reutilized as an adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions. The physical morphology and chemical composition of the waste amidoxime chelating resin (WAC-resin) from the factory was characterized by the elemental analyzer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The influence of the initial metal ions concentration, contact time, temperature and the solution pH on the adsorption performance of the metal ions was explored by batch experiments. It was shown that the optimal pH was 4. Kinetic studies revealed that adsorption process corresponded with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the adsorption isotherm was consistent with the Langmuir model. At room temperature, the adsorption capacities of WAC-resin for Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ reached 114.6, 93.4, 24.4 and 20.7 mg/g, respectively.

Wei-Zhuo Gai ◽  
Shi-Hu Zhang ◽  
Yang Yang ◽  
Kexi Sun ◽  
Hong Jia ◽  

Abstract Aluminum hydroxide is an eye catching and extensively researched adsorbent for fluoride removal and its defluoridation performance is closely related to the preparation method and crystalline phase. In this research, the defluoridation performances of aluminum hydroxides with different crystalline phases are compared and evaluated in terms of fluoride removal capacity, sensitivity to pH values and residual Al contents after defluoridation. It is found that the defluoridation performance of different aluminum hydroxides follows the order of boehmite > bayerite > gibbsite. The fluoride adsorption on aluminum hydroxides follows pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum defluoridation capacities of boehmite, bayerite and gibbsite are 42.08, 2.97 and 2.74 mg m−2, respectively. The pH values and FTIR analyses reveal that the ligand exchange between fluoride and surface hydroxyl groups is the fluoride removal mechanism. Different aluminum hydroxides have different surface hydroxyl group densities, which results in the different defluoridation capacities. This work provides a new idea to prepare aluminum hydroxide with outstanding defluoridation performance.

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 186
Do Thi My Phuong ◽  
Nguyen Xuan Loc

This study investigates the adsorption of Safranin O (SO) from aqueous solution by both biochar and magnetic biochar derived from rice straw. Rice straw biochar (RSB) was made by pyrolysis in a furnace at 500 °C, using a heating rate of 10 °C·min−1 for 2 h in an oxygen-limited environment, whilst the magnetic rice straw biochar (MRSB) was produced via the chemical precipitation of Fe2+ and Fe3+. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized biochars were characterized using SEM, SEM- EDX, XRD, FTIR techniques, and N2 adsorption (77 K) and pHpzc measurements. Batch adsorption experiments were used to explore the effect of pH, biochar dosage, kinetics, and isotherms on the adsorption of SO. Experimental data of RSB and MRSB fit well into both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, and were also well-explained by the Lagergren pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum SO adsorption capacity of MRSB was found to be 41.59 mg/g, while for RSB the figure was 31.06 mg/g. The intra-particle diffusion model indicated that the intra-particle diffusion may not be the only rate-limiting step. The collective physical and chemical forces account for the adsorption mechanism of SO molecules by both RSB and MRSB adsorbents. The obtained results demonstrated that the magnetic biochar can partially enhance the SO adsorption capacity of its precursor biochar and also be easily separated from the solution by using an external magnet.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Thanabalan Pitchay ◽  
Ali H. Jawad ◽  
Ili Syazana Johari ◽  
Sumiyyah Sabar

Immobilised chitosan on glass plates was used as an adsorbent for metallic ions from aqueous solutions in a batch adsorption system. Experiments were carried out as a function of contact time and initial metallic ions concentration. The adsorption efficiency increased with increasing initial metallic ions concentration (5 – 20 mg L-1) and the observed trend was: Ag2+ > Cu2+ > Ni2+ > Fe3+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+. The experimental data were fitted to pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, intra-particle, and liquid film diffusion kinetic models. The applicability of the pseudo-second-order kinetic model indicated that the adsorption behaviour was ascribed by chemisorption. Further data analysis by the diffusion kinetic models suggested that the metallic ions adsorption was controlled by more than one step; adsorption at the active sites, intra-particle, and liquid film diffusion.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 441
Abdelrahman O. Ezzat ◽  
Ahmed M. Tawfeek ◽  
Jothi Ramalingam Rajabathar ◽  
Hamad A. Al-Lohedan

In this work, new crosslinked pyridinium poly ionic liquid and its magnetite hybrid structured composite were prepared and applied to remove the toxic dye Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB-R250) from aqueous solutions. In this respect, vinyl pyridine, maleic anhydride, and dibromo nonane were used to prepare crosslinked quaternized vinyl pyridinium/maleic anhydride ionic liquid (CQVP-MA). Furthermore, a linear copolymer was prepared by the reaction of vinyl pyridine with bromo nonane followed by its copolymerization with maleic anhydride in order to use it as a capping agent for magnetite nanoparticles. The monodisperse MNPs were incorporated into the crosslinked PIL (CQVP-MA) by ultrasonication to prepare CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 composite to facilitate its recovery using an external magnetic field and enhance its adsorption capacity. The chemical structures, thermal stabilities, zeta potential, particle size, EDS, and SEM of the prepared CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were investigated. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, and mechanisms of CB-R250 elimination from aqueous solutions using CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were also studied, and the results revealed that the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model were the most suitable to describe the CBB adsorption from an aqueous solution. The adsorption capacities of CQVP-MA and CQVP-MA/Fe3O4 were found to be 1040 and 1198, respectively, which are more than those for previously reported material in the literature with reasonable stability for five cycles.

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