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Author(s):  
Renu Saharan ◽  
Suresh Kumar ◽  
Sukhbir Lal Khokra ◽  
Sunil Singh ◽  
Abhishek Tiwari ◽  
...  

Abstract: Cyclic peptides have emerged as a promising class of organic compounds that possess polypeptide chains with a cyclic ring structure. There is a circular sequence of bonds in which the ring structure is formed via linkage between one end of the peptide bond and the other end with an amide bond or any other chemically stable bonds like ether, thioether, lactone, and disulfide. Generally, the cyclic peptides are isolated from natural resources like invertebrate animals, micro-organisms of marine habitats, and higher plants. These cyclic peptides possess unique structures with diverse pharmacological activities. Now a day, cyclic peptides possess superior therapeutic value due to several reasons such as greater resistance to enzymatic degradation (in vivo) and higher bio-availability. Some of these cyclic peptides are rich in leucine, proline while some have other amino acids as their major constituents. Numerous novel cyclic peptides isolated from natural sources are successfully developed as bioactive products. Recently, cyclic peptides derived from natural resources have attracted attention for exploring their numerous beneficial effects. Moreover, it is reported that natural cyclic peptides exhibit various therapeutic activities like an anthelmintic, ACE inhibitor, anti-tumor, microtubule inhibitor, anti-fungal, anti-malarial, and platelet aggregation inhibiting activity. In this review, various cyclic peptides are reported with structures and biological activities that are isolated from various natural sources. The natural cyclic peptides possess a wide spectrum of biological activities and can become a drug of the future for replacing the existing drugs which develop resistance


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 783
Author(s):  
Zhouqiao Ren ◽  
George Christakos ◽  
Zhaohan Lou ◽  
Haitao Xu ◽  
Xiaonan Lv ◽  
...  

Metals and metalloids accumulate in soil, which not only leads to soil degradation and crop yield reduction but also poses hazards to human health. Commonly, source apportionment methods generate an overall relationship between sources and elements and, thus, lack the ability to capture important geographical variations of pollution sources. The present work uses a dataset collected by intensive sampling (1848 topsoil samples containing the metals Cd, Hg, Cr, Pb, and a metalloid of As) in the Shanghai study area and proposes a synthetic approach to source apportionment in the condition of spatial heterogeneity (non-stationarity) through the integration of absolute principal component scores with geographically weighted regression (APCA-GWR). The results showed that three main sources were detected by the APCA, i.e., natural sources, such as alluvial soil materials; agricultural activities, especially the overuse of phosphate fertilizer; and atmospheric deposition pollution from industry coal combustion and transportation activities. APCA-GWR provided more accurate and site-specific pollution source information than the mainstream APCA-MLR, which was verified by higher R2, lower AIC values, and non-spatial autocorrelation of residuals. According to APCA-GWR, natural sources were responsible for As and Cr accumulation in the northern mainland and Pb accumulation in the southern and northern mainland. Atmospheric deposition was the main source of Hg in the entire study area and Pb in the eastern mainland and Chongming Island. Agricultural activities, especially the overuse of phosphate fertilizer, were the main source of Cd across the study area and of As and Cr in the southern regions of the mainland and the middle of Chongming Island. In summary, this study highlights the use of a synthetic APCA-GWR model to efficiently handle source apportionment issues with spatial heterogeneity, which can provide more accurate and specific pollution source information and better references for pollution prevention and human health protection.


Author(s):  
Maree T. Smith ◽  
Dehui Kong ◽  
Andy Kuo ◽  
Mohammad Z. Imam ◽  
Craig M. Williams

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 349
Author(s):  
Asim Najmi ◽  
Sadique A. Javed ◽  
Mohammed Al Bratty ◽  
Hassan A. Alhazmi

Natural products represents an important source of new lead compounds in drug discovery research. Several drugs currently used as therapeutic agents have been developed from natural sources; plant sources are specifically important. In the past few decades, pharmaceutical companies demonstrated insignificant attention towards natural product drug discovery, mainly due to its intrinsic complexity. Recently, technological advancements greatly helped to address the challenges and resulted in the revived scientific interest in drug discovery from natural sources. This review provides a comprehensive overview of various approaches used in the selection, authentication, extraction/isolation, biological screening, and analogue development through the application of modern drug-development principles of plant-based natural products. Main focus is given to the bioactivity-guided fractionation approach along with associated challenges and major advancements. A brief outline of historical development in natural product drug discovery and a snapshot of the prominent natural drugs developed in the last few decades are also presented. The researcher’s opinions indicated that an integrated interdisciplinary approach utilizing technological advances is necessary for the successful development of natural products. These involve the application of efficient selection method, well-designed extraction/isolation procedure, advanced structure elucidation techniques, and bioassays with a high-throughput capacity to establish druggability and patentability of phyto-compounds. A number of modern approaches including molecular modeling, virtual screening, natural product library, and database mining are being used for improving natural product drug discovery research. Renewed scientific interest and recent research trends in natural product drug discovery clearly indicated that natural products will play important role in the future development of new therapeutic drugs and it is also anticipated that efficient application of new approaches will further improve the drug discovery campaign.


Pollutants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-11
Author(s):  
Antonio Speranza ◽  
Rosa Caggiano ◽  
Vito Summa

The proposed approach based on compositional data analysis was applied on simultaneous measurements of the mineral element concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 from a typical suburban site with and without a Saharan event. The suburban site is located in the city of Rome. The selected mineral elements were Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Ti, Mg, and Sr. The data relating to these elements are reported in a previous study. The considered elements are mainly related to mineral matter. The proposed approach allows statistically validating that the mineral element concentrations of PM during days with a Saharan event differ from those without a Saharan event in terms of mineral element composition and size distribution. In particular, the results showed that the compositional data analysis applied to simultaneous measurements of mineral element concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 is a helpful technique that can be used to study environmental sites affected by natural sources such as Saharan events. Moreover, the presented technique can be handy in all those conditions where it is important to discriminate whether the occurrence of an exceedance or a violation of the daily limit value established for PM could also be due to natural sources.


2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012070
Author(s):  
I Indriaty ◽  
B Ginting ◽  
K Hasballah ◽  
Djufri

Abstract Rhizophoraceae is the main family of mangroves as a source of bioactive compounds originating from the coast. Ethnophamacologically Rhizophoraceae has been used in various traditional medicine. Natural sources as anticancer from the Rhizophoraceae family are interesting to know. This study aimed to determine the cytotoxic bioactivity of methanolic extracts of roots, bark, leaves, and fruit/hypocotyl from five species of Rhizophoraceae (Bruguieria cylindrica, B. gymnorrhiza, Ceriops decandra, Rhizophora apiculata, and R. mucronata) from the Langsa mangrove forest, Aceh. The method used in this study was the Brine Shrimp Lethality Test (BSLT) bioassay using Artemia salina Leach at extract concentrations of 1, 10, 100, 500, and 1000 μg/ml. Samples were extracted using the maceration method and methanol as the solvent. The cytotoxic activity of 20 Rhizophoraceae methanol extracts showed that 12 extracts were toxic with an LC50 range of 31.5 - 934.9 μg/ml (based on LC50 ≤ 1000 μg/ml). The two extracts of which the closest to highly toxic (based on LC50 ≤ 30 μg/ml) were C. decandra bark showed LC50 of 31.5 μg/ml, and R. mucronata bark showed LC50 31.8 μg/ml. This shows that Rhizophoraceae extract has potential as a natural anticancer agent. In the five rhizophoraceae species, C. decandra was the most active compared to other species. In the four plant parts, the bark was the most toxic.


2022 ◽  
pp. 533-557
Author(s):  
Abdelhakim Bouyahya ◽  
Nasreddine El Omari ◽  
Naoual El Menyiy ◽  
Fatima-Ezzahrae Guaouguaou ◽  
Abdelaali Balahbib ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 (6) ◽  
pp. 638-647
Author(s):  
Eun Young Yun ◽  
Suyeon Kim

Organic residues are substances derived from diverse natural sources. Recent scientific analysis of organic residues has yielded important information in restoring the lifestyles of ancient peoples. In this study, the organic material contained within the celadon oil bottle of the Goryeo dynasty, excavated from the Soejoul site in Geumneung-dong, Chungju, was analyzed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results showed that the organic materials in the bottle were plant-derived oils. In particular, polyunsaturated fatty acids and phytosterols were detected using GC-MS analysis. Sesamin components were also identified. Sesamin, which is a characteristic component of sesame seeds, is a lignan and an antioxidant. As the organic residues in the oil bottle were derived from sesame seeds, it is presumed that sesame oil was stored in the bottle.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Author(s):  
Charlie Bernier ◽  
Coralie Goetz ◽  
Eric Jubinville ◽  
Julie Jean

Due to rising consumer preference for natural remedies, the search for natural antiviral agents has accelerated considerably in recent years. Among the natural sources of compounds with potential antiviral proprieties, berries are interesting candidates, due to their association with health-promoting properties, including antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. The past two decades have witnessed a flurry of new findings. Studies suggest promising antiviral proprieties against enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, particularly of cranberries, blueberries, blackcurrants, black raspberries, and pomegranates. The aim of this review is to assemble these findings, to list the implied mechanisms of action, and thereby point out promising subjects for research in this field, in the hope that compounds obtainable from natural sources such as berries may be used someday to treat, or even prevent, viral infections.


Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 180
Author(s):  
Blerina Shkembi ◽  
Thom Huppertz

This article reviews physicochemical aspects of calcium absorption from foods. Notable differences are observed between different food products in relation to calcium absorption, which range from <10% to >50% of calcium in the foods. These differences can be related to the interactions of calcium with other food components in the food matrix, which are affected by various factors, including fermentation, and how these are affected by the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract. Calcium absorption in the intestine requires calcium to be in an ionized form. The low pH in the stomach is critical for solubilization and ionization of calcium salts present in foods, although calcium oxalate complexes remain insoluble and thus poorly absorbable. In addition, the rate of gastric transit can strongly affect fractional absorption of calcium and a phased release of calcium into the intestine, resulting in higher absorption levels. Dairy products are the main natural sources of dietary calcium in many diets worldwide, which is attributable to their ability to provide high levels of absorbable calcium in a single serving. For calcium from other food products, lower levels of absorbable calcium can limit contributions to bodily calcium requirements.


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