Membrane Integrity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 841-854
Lucas Emanuel Ferreira Canuto ◽  
Lorenzo Garrido Teixeira Martini Segabinazzi ◽  
Endrigo Adonis Braga de Araújo ◽  
Luis Fernando Mercês Chaves Silva ◽  

Cooling and freezing processes cause physical and chemical damage to sperm by cold shock and oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two antioxidants on sperm parameters of cooled and frozen-thawed ram semen diluted in an egg yolk-based extender. Semen was collected from 30 rams and processed in two consecutive experiments to test the inclusion of different concentrations of quercetin and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in an egg yolk-based semen extender. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added as a solvent to the semen extender in a ratio of 1 mL DMSO for 90 mg of quercetin and 1 mL DMSO for 880 mg of BHT. After collection, semen was diluted at 200 × 106 motile sperm/mL (control) and split into different groups in each experiment. In experiment 1, semen was diluted with the extender containing quercetin (Q5, 5 μg/mL; Q10, 10 μg/mL; Q15, 15 μg/mL) or DMSO alone (DMSO1, 0.055 μL DMSO per mL; DMSO2, 0.165 μL DMSO per mL). In experiment 2, semen was diluted with the extender with BHT (BHT1, 0.5 μg/mL; BHT2, 1 μg/mL; BHT3, 1.5 μg/mL) or DMSO alone (DMSO3, 0.375 μL DMSO per mL; DMSO4, 1.125 μL DMSO per mL). After dilution, the semen was divided into two aliquots. Treated ram sperm samples were also subjected to different storage methods. The first set of samples was cooled at 5 °C for 24 h, whereas the second set of samples was frozen-thawed. Sperm motility parameters and plasma membrane integrity (PMI) were evaluated immediately after dilution (0h) and 24 h after cooling and in the frozen-thawed samples via computer-assisted sperm analysis and epifluorescence microscopy, respectively. The inclusion of quercetin or BHT did not affect sperm motility parameters or PMI of fresh, cooled, or frozen-thawed sperm in this study (P < 0.05). However, further studies are needed to test the effects of these antioxidants on the fertility of cryopreserved ram semen.

2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
B. Padayachee ◽  
F. Odun-Ayo ◽  
L. Reddy

Abstract Bulbine natalensis and Chorophytum comosum are potential medicinal source for the treatment of cancers. Chronic myeloid leukaemia is a hematopoietic stem cells disorder treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors but often cause recurrence of the leukaemia after cessation of therapy, hence require alternative treatment. This study determines the anti-cancer effect of leaf, root and bulb methanolic and aqueous extracts of B. natalensis and C. comosum in chronic human myelogenous leukaemia (K562) cell line by MTT, Hoechst bis-benzimide nuclear and annexin V stain assays. The root methanolic extract of B. natalensis and C. comosum showed a high cytotoxicity of 8.6% and 16.7% respectively on the K562 cell line at 1,000 μg/ml concentration. Morphological loss of cell membrane integrity causing degradation of the cell and fragmentation were observed in the root methanolic extract of both plants. A high apoptosis (p < 0.0001) was induced in the K562 cells by both leaf and root extracts of the C. comosum compared to the B. natalensis. This study shows both plants possess apoptotic effect against in vitro myelogenous leukaemia which contributes to the overall anti-cancer properties of B. natalensis and C. comosum to justify future therapeutic applications against chronic myelogenous leukaemia blood cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-97
Harris Sultan ◽  
Prabakar Kumar Rao ◽  
Kisha Deslee Piggott ◽  
Michael A Paley ◽  

AIM: To evaluate differences in microparticle profiles in vitreous samples between diabetic and non-diabetic eyes undergoing vitrectomy. METHODS: Un-masked cross-sectional series of 34 eyes undergoing vitrectomy. Vitreous specimens were collected and processed to evaluate for membrane integrity (DAPI), apoptosis (Annexin-V), and endothelial-cell origin (V-Cadherin). A BD LSR II flow cytometer was used for analysis and standardized sub-micron-sized beads were used for size comparison. RESULTS: Thirty-four specimens underwent analysis. Greater levels of Annexin-V were found on microparticles from specimens in which blood had entered the vitreous (n=12) compared to those without blood (n=22; 52.3%±30.7% vs 19.6%±27.2%, P=0.002). Patients with diabetes having surgery with hemorrhage (n=7) had greater expression of Annexin-V than those without hemorrhage (n=8; 62.1%±31.7% vs 18.9%±20.9%, P=0.009). However, in patients with non-diabetic vitreous hemorrhage, the level of Annexin-V expression was not significantly different compared to other disease processes (38.6%±25.7%, n=5 vs 20.0%±30.9%, n=14, P=0.087). CONCLUSION: Increased expression of the apoptotic marker, Annexin-V is detected on vitreous microparticles in diabetes-related vitreous hemorrhage. When evaluating vitreous hemorrhage in patients without diabetes, the apoptotic signal is not significantly different. Vitrectomy in patients with diabetes, and improvement in visual outcomes, may be related to the removal of a serum-derived, pro-apoptotic vitreous. Further investigation is warranted in order to identify the molecular characteristics of microparticles that regulate disease.

2022 ◽  
pp. ASN.2021101293
Francesca Maremonti ◽  
Claudia Meyer ◽  
Andreas Linkermann

Understanding nephron loss is a primary strategy for preventing chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. Death of renal tubular cells may occur by apoptosis during developmental and regenerative processes. However, during acute kidney injury (AKI), the transition of AKI to CKD, sepsis-associated AKI, and kidney transplantation, ferroptosis and necroptosis, two pathways associated with the loss of plasma membrane integrity, kill renal cells. This necrotic type of cell death is associated with an inflammatory response, which is referred to as necroinflammation. Importantly, the necroinflammatory response to cells that die by necroptosis may be fundamentally different from the tissue response to ferroptosis. While mechanisms of ferroptosis and necroptosis have recently been investigated in detail, the cell death propagation during tubular necrosis, although described morphologically, remains incompletely understood. Here, we argue that a molecular switch downstream of tubular necrosis determines nephron regeneration vs. nephron loss, respectively. Unravelling the details of this "switch" must include the inflammatory response to tubular necrosis and regenerative signals potentially controlled by inflammatory cells, including the stimulation of myofibroblasts as the origin of fibrosis. Understanding in detail the molecular switch and the inflammatory responses to tubular necrosis can inform discussion of therapeutic options.

Min-Sub Lee ◽  
Steven J. Bensinger

AbstractCholesterol is a critical lipid for all mammalian cells, ensuring proper membrane integrity, fluidity, and biochemical function. Accumulating evidence indicates that macrophages rapidly and profoundly reprogram their cholesterol metabolism in response to activation signals to support host defense processes. However, our understanding of the molecular details underlying how and why cholesterol homeostasis is specifically reshaped during immune responses remains less well understood. This review discusses our current knowledge of cellular cholesterol homeostatic machinery and introduces emerging concepts regarding how plasma membrane cholesterol is partitioned into distinct pools. We then discuss how proinflammatory signals can markedly reshape the cholesterol metabolism of macrophages, with a focus on the differences between MyD88-dependent pattern recognition receptors and the interferon signaling pathway. We also discuss recent work investigating the capacity of these proinflammatory signals to selectively reshape plasma membrane cholesterol homeostasis. We examine how these changes in plasma membrane cholesterol metabolism influence sensitivity to a set of microbial pore-forming toxins known as cholesterol-dependent cytolysins that specifically target cholesterol for their effector functions. We also discuss whether lipid metabolic reprogramming can be leveraged for therapy to mitigate tissue damage mediated by cholesterol-dependent cytolysins in necrotizing fasciitis and other related infections. We expect that advancing our understanding of the crosstalk between metabolism and innate immunity will help explain how inflammation underlies metabolic diseases and highlight pathways that could be targeted to normalize metabolic homeostasis in disease states.

Ting Wu ◽  
Cheng-Li Fan ◽  
Lian-Tao Han ◽  
Yuan-Bing Guo ◽  
Tong-Bao Liu

Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic yeast-like pathogen that mainly infects immunocompromised individuals and causes fatal meningitis. Sexual reproduction can promote the exchange of genetic material between different strains of C. neoformans, which is one of the reasons leading to the emergence of highly pathogenic and drug-resistant strains of C. neoformans. Although much research has been done on the regulation mechanism of Cryptococcus sexual reproduction, there are few studies on the sexual reproduction regulation of Cryptococcus by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This study identified an F-box protein, Cdc4, which contains a putative F-box domain and eight WD40 domains. The expression pattern analysis showed that the CDC4 gene was expressed in various developmental stages of C. neoformans, and the Cdc4 protein was localized in the nucleus of cryptococcal cells. In vitro stress responses assays showed that the CDC4 overexpression strains are sensitive to SDS and MMS but not Congo red, implying that Cdc4 may regulate the cell membrane integrity and repair of DNA damage of C. neoformans. Fungal virulence assay showed that although the cdc4Δ mutant grows normally and can produce typical virulence factors such as capsule and melanin, the cdc4Δ mutant completely loses its pathogenicity in a mouse systemic-infection model. Fungal mating assays showed that Cdc4 is also essential for fungal sexual reproduction in C. neoformans. Although normal mating hyphae were observed during mating, the basidiospores’ production was blocked in bilateral mating between cdc4Δ mutants. Fungal nuclei development assay showed that the nuclei failed to undergo meiosis after fusion inside the basidia during the bilateral mating of cdc4Δ mutants, indicating that Cdc4 is critical to regulating meiosis during cryptococcal mating. In summary, our study revealed that the F-box protein Cdc4 is critical for fungal virulence and sexual reproduction in C. neoformans.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 163
Yanhu Wang ◽  
Liuming Zhang ◽  
Tariq Sohail ◽  
Yan Kang ◽  
Xiaomei Sun ◽  

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the addition of chlorogenic acid (CGA) to a sheep semen extender could improve the quality of chilled sheep sperm. Ejaculates (n = 80) were collected from five Hu rams with an artificial vagina. The ejaculates were mixed and divided into five equal parts, diluted with a CGA-free Tris–egg yolk extender (control), or supplemented with 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 mg/mL. The sperm kinematic parameters (viability, progressive motility), functional integrity of plasma membrane and acrosome, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and antioxidant parameters (Catalase (CAT), Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), ROS level and Malondialdehyde (MDA) content) were evaluated during storage of the semen. The results indicated that: PM, plasmatic membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity in 0.8 mg/mL CGA were higher (p < 0.05) from day 1 to 5. The ROS level in CGA groups was lower than the control (p < 0.05). CAT, SOD, ATP, and T-AOC were highest at 0.8 mg/mL concentration within 1 to 5 days. The above results indicated that the right concentration of CGA improved the quality of Hu ram sperm during chilling storage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
Ruixue Zhang ◽  
Hemeng Dong ◽  
Pengpeng Zhao ◽  
Chunmei Shang ◽  
Hang Qi ◽  

Abstract Background Semen cryopreservation has become an essential tool for conservation efforts of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); however, it is severely detrimental to sperm quality. Evidence has shown that antioxidants have the potential to reverse cryopreservation-induced damage in sperm. The purpose of this study was to screen effective antioxidants that could retain sperm quality during cryopreservation and to determine the optimal dose. Seven antioxidant groups, including resveratrol (RSV = 50 μM, RSV = 100 μM, RSV = 150 μM), lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LBP = 4 mg/mL), laminaria japonica polysaccharides (LJP = 1 mg/mL) or combination (LBP = 2 mg/mL, LJP = 1 mg/mL and RSV = 100 μM) were assessed. Results RSV, LBP, LJP, or a combination of RSV, LBP, and LJP added to the freezing medium significantly improved sperm progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, and mitochondrial activity during the cryopreservation process. Furthermore, the activities of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were also improved. The levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde in semen were notably reduced. Hyaluronidase activity and acrosin activity were significantly increased in LBP-treated sperm. However, sperm total motility and DNA integrity were not significantly different between the groups. Conclusions RSV (50 μM) or LBP (2 mg/mL) are the best candidate antioxidants for inclusion in the freezing medium to improve the quality of giant panda spermatozoa during semen cryopreservation.

AMB Express ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Josué Daniel Mora-Garduño ◽  
Jessica Tamayo-Nuñez ◽  
Felipe Padilla-Vaca ◽  
Fátima Berenice Ramírez-Montiel ◽  
Ángeles Rangel-Serrano ◽  

AbstractThe presence of pollutants in soil and water has given rise to diverse analytical and biological approaches to detect and measure contaminants in the environment. Using bacterial cells as reporter strains represents an advantage for detecting pollutants present in soil or water samples. Here, an Escherichia coli reporter strain expressing a chromoprotein capable of interacting with soil or water samples and responding to DNA damaging compounds is validated. The reporter strain generates a qualitative signal and is based on the expression of the coral chromoprotein AmilCP under the control of the recA promoter. This strain can be used simply by applying soil or water samples directly and rendering activation upon DNA damage. This reporter strain responds to agents that damage DNA (with an apparent detection limit of 1 µg of mitomycin C) without observable response to membrane integrity damage, protein folding or oxidative stress generating agents, in the latter case, DNA damage was observed. The developed reporter strain reported here is effective for the detection of DNA damaging agents present in soils samples. In a proof-of-concept analysis using soil containing chromium, showing activation at 15.56 mg/L of Cr(VI) present in soil and leached samples and is consistent with Cr(III) toxicity at high concentrations (130 µg). Our findings suggest that chromogenic reporter strains can be applied for simple screening, thus reducing the number of samples requiring analytical techniques.

Mohamed Hawali Bata Gouda ◽  
Sijia Peng ◽  
Renying Yu ◽  
Jianqi Li ◽  
Guihong Zhao ◽  

Abstract To understand the mechanism governing the postharvest senescence of Zizania latifolia, and the regulatory mechanism induced by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) during storage at 25°C, physiobiochemical and conjoint analyses of the transcriptome and metabolome were performed. The results indicated that 1-MCP treatment engendered changes in the expression of genes and metabolites during the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia. The 1-MCP treatment maintained a good visual appearance, preserved the cell structure, and membrane integrity of Z. latifolia by keeping the expression of membranes-related lipolytic enzymes (and related genes) low and the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine high. Compared to the control group, 1-MCP treatment enhanced the activities of antioxidant enzymes, resulting in a decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, and thus inhibition of oxidative damage and loss of membrane integrity. In addition, 1-MCP treatment retarded the senescence of Z. latifolia by down-regulating the expression of ethylene biosynthesis-related genes and promoting up-regulation of brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) kinase inhibitor 1, calmodulin (CaM), glutathione reductase, jasmonate amino acid synthase, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related genes. Moreover, 1-MCP retarded Z. latifolia senescence by inducing the activity of ATP-biosynthesis related genes and metabolites. Our findings should facilitate future research on the postharvest storage of Z. latifolia, and could help delay senescence and prolong the storage time for commercial applications.

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