traditional medicine
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-007
Marina Silalahi

Eclipta prostrata has been long used by humans as traditional medicine and hair fertilizer. This study aims to explain the relationship between utilization and bioactivity of E. prostrata. The method used is a literature review of articles published online on Google Scholar using the keywords E. prostrata, uses E. prostrata, and bioactivity of E. prostrata. Ethnobotanically, E. prostrata is used to treat liver disorders, liver tonic, respiratory disorders (asthma, cough), hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, and gastritis. In the field of beauty E. prostrata is used to nourish hair and treat baldness. The E. prostrata has bioactivity to treat neurodegeneration, asthma, anti-cancer, overcoming baldness, anti-diabetes mellitus, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hepatoprotective, anti-osteoporosis, and anti-hypercholesterolemia. The bioactivity of E. prostrata is related to the content of its secondary metabolite compounds. Echinocystic acid and ecclalbasaponin II from E. prostrata are associated with anti-cancer activity.

Shabnam Khatami ◽  
Mohsen Naseri ◽  
Zahra Bahaeddin ◽  
Farzaneh Ghaffari ◽  
Abdolali Moosavizadeh ◽  

Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) is a set of theoretical and practical sciences that are used in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of physical, mental, or social disorders. This holistic medical system can provide solutions for some diseases, including drug addiction, that modern medicine, only offers symptomatic treatment. Since the addiction prevalence in the 16th century, Persian medicine scholars have introduced various ways to quit it. In this study, we investigated if Persian medicine has treatment options to quit opium addiction. We studied the main textbooks of TPM that specifically talked about addiction. Our study was conducted according to a systematic prioritization in traditional medicine. Additionally, scientific databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar searched for plant active ingredients in current pharmacology. By this method, forty-nine drugs were found, and nine drugs with herbal origin obtained the highest score in addiction treatment. Since the main purpose of the study is finding new drugs theoretically effective in quitting opium addiction; we sought to find evidence of that effectiveness in modern pharmacology and we found them in most prioritized drugs. Prioritizing traditional drugs can lead to find new drugs which also have evidence of effectiveness in modern studies. Therefore, they could be introduced as novel natural remedies for disease. The list of drugs obtained in this study can be the basis for conducting in vitro and in vivo studies for design and development of new drugs in the treatment of opium addiction. In fact, traditional medicine could have a special place in quitting opium addiction, and this capacity should be further exploited.

2022 ◽  
Nesarajan Joseph ◽  
Sathishkumar Durairaj ◽  
Oviya Gowthaman ◽  
Vinoth Kumar Ganesan

Herbal medicines can make therapeutic drugs and are an essential part of the worldwide healthcare system. Plants have always been an essential part of many indigenous peoples' life. Snakebite is a typical tropical condition that goes unnoticed. Snakebite is still a significant public health issue in many parts of the world, particularly in India, where the disease is particularly prevalent. Morbidity and mortality rates among rural and indigenous populations in the country are among the highest in the world. The problem is made worse by people delaying or refusing to seek medical care because they believe in traditional healers. People worldwide use plants to treat poisonous snakebites as folk medicine. Five hundred twenty-three plant species belonging to the 122 families are recognized as a source of drugs/compounds recognized as a possible cure for snakebite. However, this assessment is limited to a small number of essential plants used in snakebite poisoning in India. The most important groups from which various plants are employed include Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fab Lamiaceae and Moraceae. In this investigation, phytocompounds with anti-venom action were discovered in 29 plants belonging to 22 families used as a traditional medicine to treat poisonous snakebites.

2022 ◽  
pp. 136346152110629
Eduardo Ekman Schenberg ◽  
Konstantin Gerber

After decades of biomedical research on ayahuasca's molecular compounds and their physiological effects, recent clinical trials show evidence of therapeutic potential for depression. However, indigenous peoples have been using ayahuasca therapeutically for a very long time, and thus we question the epistemic authority attributed to scientific studies, proposing that epistemic injustices were committed with practical, cultural, social, and legal consequences. We question epistemic authority based on the double-blind design, the molecularization discourse, and contextual issues about safety. We propose a new approach to foster epistemically fair research, outlining how to enforce indigenous rights, considering the Brazilian, Peruvian, and Colombian cases. Indigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect, and develop their biocultural heritage, traditional knowledge, and cultural expressions, including traditional medicine practices. New regulations about ayahuasca must respect the free, prior, and informed consent of indigenous peoples according to the International Labor Organization Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention no. 169. The declaration of the ayahuasca complex as a national cultural heritage may prevent patenting from third parties, fostering the development of traditional medicine. When involving isolated compounds derived from traditional knowledge, benefit-sharing agreements are mandatory according to the United Nations’ Convention on Biological Diversity. Considering the extremely high demand to treat millions of depressed patients, the medicalization of ayahuasca without adequate regulation respectful of indigenous rights can be detrimental to indigenous peoples and their management of local environments, potentially harming the sustainability of the plants and of the Amazon itself, which is approaching its dieback tipping point.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Gizachew Woldesenbet Nuraga ◽  
Tileye Feyissa ◽  
Kassahun Tesfaye ◽  
Manosh Kumar Biswas ◽  
Trude Schwarzacher ◽  

Enset (Ensete ventricosum) is a multipurpose crop extensively cultivated in southern and southwestern Ethiopia for human food, animal feed, and fiber. It has immense contributions to the food security and rural livelihoods of 20 million people. Several distinct enset landraces are cultivated for their uses in traditional medicine. These landraces are vulnerable to various human-related activities and environmental constraints. The genetic diversity among the landraces is not verified to plan conservation strategy. Moreover, it is currently unknown whether medicinal landraces are genetically differentiated from other landraces. Here, we characterize the genetic diversity of medicinal enset landraces to support effective conservation and utilization of their diversity. We evaluated the genetic diversity of 51 enset landraces, of which 38 have reported medicinal value. A total of 38 alleles across the 15 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and a moderate level of genetic diversity (He = 0.47) were detected. Analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) revealed that only 2.4% of the total genetic variation was contributed by variation among the medicinal and non-medicinal groups of landraces, with an FST of 0.024. A neighbor-joining tree showed four separate clusters with no correlation to the use-values of the landraces. Except for two, all “medicinal” landraces with distinct vernacular names were found to be genetically different, showing that vernacular names are a good indicator of genetic distinctiveness in these specific groups of landraces. The discriminant analysis of the principal components also confirmed the absence of distinct clustering between the two groups. We found that enset landraces were clustered irrespective of their use-value, showing no evidence for genetic differentiation between the enset grown for ‘medicinal’ uses and non-medicinal landraces. This suggests that enset medicinal properties may be restricted to a more limited number of genotypes, might have resulted from the interaction of genotype with the environment or management practice, or partly misreported. The study provides baseline information that promotes further investigations in exploiting the medicinal value of these specific landraces.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Chenglai Xia ◽  
Dongning Yao ◽  
Yunfeng Lai ◽  
Yan Xue ◽  
Hao Hu

Abstract Background China has introduced a series of polices and practice to manage the market access of Chinese patent medicine (CPM) products into its healthcare security system, which is less analyzed and reported in current literature. Therefore, this paper aimed to investigate the mechanisms managing market access of CPM products into healthcare security system in China, expecting to provide implications for international integration of traditional medicine products into health systems. Method This paper used a documentary analysis approach as a qualitative research method. Data were collected from four sources and analyzed in a thematic way. Results Four mechanisms to manage entry, price adjustment, and exit of innovative brand and generic CPM products are identified, including: (1) price negotiation, mechanism of new entry of innovative brand CPM products into the national reimbursement list; (2) price re-negotiation, mechanism of price adjustment of innovative brand CPM products within the national reimbursement list; (3) mass procurement, mechanism of generic CPM products to healthcare security system; and (4) direct removal, mechanism of removal from the national reimbursement list. Conclusions China has established market access framework of CPM products by focusing on price negotiation for innovative brand CPM products and mass procurement for generic CPM products. Further studies of CPM products based real-world data are needed to provide clinical and pharmacoeconomic evidence to support market access of CPM products into healthcare security systems.

2022 ◽  
Shalini Mathpal ◽  
Tushar Joshi ◽  
Priyanka Sharma ◽  
Veena Pande ◽  
Subhash Chandra

Abstract The COVID-19 is still pandemic due to emerging of the various variant of concern of SARS-CoV2. Hence it is devastating the world, causing significant economic as well as social chaos. This needs great effort to search and develop effective alternatives along with vaccination. Therefore to continue drug discovery endeavors, we used chalcone derivatives to find an effective drug candidate against SARS-CoV2. Chalcone is a common simple scaffold that exists in many diets as well as in traditional medicine. Natural as well as synthetic chalcones have shown numerous interesting biological activities and are also effective in fighting various diseases. Hence various computational methods were applied to find out potential inhibitors of 3CLPro using a library of 3000 compounds of chalcones. Firstly the screening by structure-based pharmacophore model yielded 84 hits that were subjected to molecular docking. The top 10 docked compounds were characterized for stability by using 100 nanoseconds (ns) molecular dynamic (MD) simulation approach. Further, the binding free energy calculation by MMPBSA showed that four compounds bind to 3CLPro enzyme with high affinity i.e., -87.962(KJ/mol), -66.125 (KJ/mol), -59.589(KJ/mol), and -66.728(KJ/mol) respectively. Since chalcone is a common simple scaffold that is present in many diets as well as in traditional medicine, we suggest that screened compounds may emerge as promising drug candidates for SARS-CoV-2. These compounds may be investigated in vitro to evaluate the efficacy againstSARS-CoV-2.

2022 ◽  
pp. 221-241
Ranjit Barua ◽  
Sudipto Datta ◽  
Pallab Datta ◽  
Amit Roy Chowdhury

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel virus communicable disease affected by serious acute respiratory condition coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which goes to the family of coronavirus. December 2019, in Wuhan, China, the first case of novel coronavirus was reported, and this widespread virus globally became a pandemic. Various studies show that drug applicants are used as antivirals or immune modulators. Yet, the outcome of this examination reported the drug applicants were not ominously operative in contrast to the infection. In the interim, it's believed that taking herbal immune-modulators can avoid and/or resist COVID-19. Unluckily, definite clinical and preclinical trials to assess the special herbal immune regulators' effects have not been directed. Specific natural elements might be actual for treating COVID-19 built on universal thoughts from former tests. Though there are no exact anti-COVID-19 medicines as well as a drugs until now, the use of traditional medicine and epidemiology of novel coronavirus disease will be discussed for COVID-19 treatment.

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