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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-165
Wilson Araque Jaramillo ◽  
Roberto Hidalgo Flor ◽  
Jairo Rivera Vásquez

The main objective of this article is to analyze the evolution of Ecuadorian Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME), their contribution to the national economy, institutional framework, and internal operating characteristics. To this end, the focus is on companies related to the manufacturing sector in Ecuador. The main periods of the analysis are: i) the 1990s, ii) 2000-2008 and iii) 2009-2019; however, the decades of the 1970s and 1980s have been included in the first part of the article for their relevance. Literature review is the main data collection methodology, and the databases used are from official sources. Data from the Banco Central del Ecuador (BCE, Central Bank of Ecuador), the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censos (INEC, National Institute of Statistics and Census), regulations and research around the SME sector have been used. The main findings are that SMEs are crucial within the Ecuadorian industrial fabric, because of its specialization in products that contribute to satisfying basic needs, but also because they provide parts and supplies to other companies. The quantitative contribution of SMEs, however, has been declining over time, both in number of establishments, staffing, and production, which reveals the increasing relevance of large industries. In this process, the institutional framework has had an influence in the evolution of SMEs, with certain strengths and weaknesses in terms of supporting the development of SMEs. In turn, in regards to internal operation, it becomes apparent that despite some improvement, there has not been significant progress during the period under analysis. In short, this work contributes to the larger discussion about the relevance of SMEs in Ecuador, their history, and whether there might be grounds for public policies to support their development.

2022 ◽  
Igor Aronson ◽  
Jiyuan Wang ◽  
Mu-Jie Huang ◽  
Remmi Baker-Sediako ◽  
Raymond Kapral

Abstract Control of the individual and collective behavior of self-propelled synthetic micro-objects has immediate application for nanotechnology, robotics, and precision medicine. Despite significant progress in the synthesis and characterization of self-propelled Janus (two-faced) particles, predictive understanding of their behavior remains challenging, especially if the particles have anisotropic forms. Here, by using molecular simulation, we describe the interactions of chemically-propelled microtori near a wall. The results show that a torus hovers at a certain distance from the wall due to a combination of gravity and hydrodynamic flows generated by the chemical activity. Moreover, electrostatic dipolar interactions between the torus and the wall result in a spontaneous tilt and horizontal translation, in a qualitative agreement with the experiment. Simulations of the dynamics of two tori near a wall provide evidence for the formation of stable self-propelled bound states. Our results illustrate that self-organization at the microscale occurs due to a combination of multiple factors, including hydrodynamic, chemical, and electrostatic interactions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 797
Tatiana Michel ◽  
Markus Ollert ◽  
Jacques Zimmer

Despite significant progress in recent years, the therapeutic approach of the multiple different forms of human cancer often remains a challenge. Besides the well-established cancer surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, immunotherapeutic strategies gain more and more attention, and some of them have already been successfully introduced into the clinic. Among these, immunotherapy based on natural killer (NK) cells is considered as one of the most promising options. In the present review, we will expose the different possibilities NK cells offer in this context, compare data about the theoretical background and mechanism(s) of action, report some results of clinical trials and identify several very recent trends. The pharmaceutical industry is quite interested in NK cell immunotherapy, which will benefit the speed of progress in the field.

Tian-Yun Huang ◽  
Hongri Gu ◽  
Bradley J. Nelson

Intelligent micromachines, with dimensions ranging from a few millimeters down to hundreds of nanometers, are miniature systems capable of performing specific tasks autonomously at small scales. Enhancing the intelligence of micromachines to tackle the uncertainty and variability in complex microenvironments has applications in minimally invasive medicine, bioengineering, water cleaning, analytical chemistry, and more. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the construction of intelligent micromachines, evolving from simple micromachines to soft, compound, reconfigurable, encodable, multifunctional, and integrated micromachines, as well as from individual to multiagent, multiscale, hierarchical, self-organizing, and swarm micromachines. The field leverages two important trends in robotics research—the miniaturization and intelligentization of machines—but a compelling combination of these two features has yet to be realized. The core technologies required to make such tiny machines intelligent include information media, transduction, processing, exchange, and energy supply, but embedding all of these functions into a system at the micro- or nanoscale is challenging. This article offers a comprehensive introduction to the state-of-the-art technologies used to create intelligence for micromachines and provides insight into the construction of next-generation intelligent micromachines that can adapt to diverse scenarios for use in emerging fields. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems, Volume 5 is May 2022. Please see for revised estimates.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 289
Sharifah Nurfadhlin Afifah Syed Azhar ◽  
Siti Efliza Ashari ◽  
Norhazlin Zainuddin ◽  
Masriana Hassan

Advanced hybrid component development in nanotechnology provides superior functionality in the application of scientific knowledge for the drug delivery industry. The purpose of this paper is to review important nanohybrid perspectives in drug delivery between nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and hydrogel systems. The hybrid system may result in the enhancement of each component’s synergistic properties in the mechanical strength of the hydrogel and concomitantly decrease aggregation of the NLC. The significant progress in nanostructured lipid carriers–hydrogels is reviewed here, with an emphasis on their preparation, potential applications, advantages, and underlying issues associated with these exciting materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Cong Huang ◽  
Carolina Oi Lam Ung ◽  
Haishaerjiang Wushouer ◽  
Lin Bai ◽  
Tao Huang ◽  

Abstract Background In China, health technology assessment (HTA) has recently been adopted in pricing negotiation for medicine listing in the National Reimbursement Drug List. At present, how HTA is applied to inform the decision-making process remains underreported. In order to explore how the adoption of HTA was translated into listing and price negotiation results in light of the confidential nature of the negotiating process, this study aimed to compare the negotiated price and the clinical benefit of selected targeted anticancer medicines (TAMs) involved in the 2019 negotiation. Main text Among 16 TAMs successfully negotiated, only four TAMs representing four indication groups had appropriate reference medicines for comparison and were, therefore, included in the analysis. The price and clinical benefit of the four TAMs were compared against one or two reference medicines with the same initial indications. The sales prices for nine TAMs before and after the negotiation were extracted from the centralized medication procurement system. Clinical benefits were evaluated based on evidence from published articles and clinical guidelines. The results suggested that, despite the application of HTA, both rational and irrational decisions had been made about the reimbursement of TAMs in the 2019 negotiation, warranting further investigation. Conclusion While the development and adoption of HTA has seen significant progress in China, actions are needed to ensure that the adoption of HTA is effectively applied in decisions on the reimbursement of medicines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
pp. 10
Reza Mir Fallah Nassiri ◽  
Amir Hosein Monazami ◽  
Hamid Najaf Aghaei ◽  
Meysam Rahimizadeh

In recent years, Iran's volleyball sport has made significant progress and the Iranian national team has been able to compete in the World Volleyball League. This situation has provided the Iranian Volleyball Federation with diplomatic opportunities. The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for the development of international sport diplomacy in the volleyball federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran. This study was conducted qualitatively by interviewing Iranian volleyball officials (N = 4), academic experts in sport diplomacy (N = 4) and internationally experienced coaches and referees (N = 5). Data analysis with theme analysis techniques revealed that the five emerging themes included: challenges, principles of effective international sport diplomacy, international sport diplomacy success factors, international diplomacy development strategies in volleyball federation, and the implications of international sport diplomacy, including 18 sub-themes and 43 open codes. All these aspects are analyzed and discussed in the present study. En los últimos años, el deporte de voleibol ha logrado un progreso significativo en Irán y el equipo nacional iraní ha podido competir en la Liga Mundial de Voleibol. Esta situación ha brindado oportunidades diplomáticas a la Federación Iraní de Voleibol. El propósito de este estudio fue desarrollar estrategias para el desarrollo de la diplomacia deportiva internacional en la federación de voleibol de la República Islámica de Irán. Este estudio se realizó de forma cualitativa entrevistando a funcionarios de voleibol iraníes (N = 4), expertos académicos en diplomacia deportiva (N = 4) y entrenadores y árbitros con experiencia internacional (N = 5). El análisis de datos con técnicas de análisis temático reveló que los cinco temas emergentes incluían: desafíos, principios de la diplomacia deportiva internacional efectiva, factores de éxito de la diplomacia deportiva internacional, estrategias de desarrollo de la diplomacia internacional en la federación de voleibol y las implicaciones de la diplomacia deportiva internacional, incluyendo 18 subtemas y 43 códigos abiertos. Todos estos aspectos se analizan y discuten en el presente estudio.

2022 ◽  
Vol 258 ◽  
pp. 06004
Martin Hoferichter

In recent years, significant progress in the calculation of the HLbL contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon has been achieved both with data-driven methods and in lattice QCD. In these proceedings I will discuss current developments aimed at controlling HLbL scattering at the level of 10%, as required for the final precision of the Fermilab E989 experiment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 472
Joanna Wessely-Szponder ◽  
Joanna Zdziennicka ◽  
Andrzej Junkuszew ◽  
Michał Latalski ◽  
Michał Świeca ◽  

Currently, there are a number of therapeutic schemes used for the treatment of various types of musculoskeletal disorders. However, despite the use of new treatment options, therapeutic failure remains common due to impaired and delayed healing, or implant rejection. Faced with this challenge, in recent years regenerative medicine started looking for alternative solutions that could additionally support tissue regeneration. This review aims to outline the functions and possible clinical applications of, and future hopes associated with, using autologous or heterologous products such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), microvesicles (MVs), and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP) obtained from circulating neutrophils. Moreover, different interactions between neutrophils and platelets are described. Certain products released from neutrophils are critical for interactions between different immune cells to ensure adequate tissue repair. By acting directly and indirectly on host cells, these neutrophil-derived products can modulate the body’s inflammatory responses in various ways. The development of new formulations based on these products and their clinically proven success would give hope for significant progress in regenerative therapy in human and veterinary medicine.

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