(1) Purpose: this study proposes a method of prediction of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) that can develop within ten years in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). (2) Methods: For the design and evaluation of the algorithm, the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) data from the 3367 participants were divided into a training set, validation set, and test set in the ratio of 5:3:2. From the data during a baseline period when patients did not have any CVD, we extracted 18 features from electrography (ECG) based on signal processing methods, 30 ECG features based on artificial intelligence (AI), ten clinical risk factors for CVD. We trained the model and evaluated it by using CVD outcomes result, monitored in follow-ups. The optimal feature vectors were selected through statistical analysis and support vector machine recursive feature elimination (SVM-RFE) of the extracted feature vectors. Features based on AI, a novel proposal from this study, showed excellent performance out of all selected feature vectors. In addition, new parameters based on AI were possibly meaningful predictors for CVD, when used in addition to the predictors for CVD that are already known. The selected features were used as inputs to the prediction model based on SVM for CVD, determining the development of CVD-free, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), or stroke within ten years. (3) Results: As a result, the respective recall and precision values were 82.9% and 87.5% for CVD-free; 71.9% and 63.8% for CVD; 57.2% and 55.4% for CHD; 52.6% and 40.8% for HF; 52.4% and 44.6% for stroke. The F1-score between CVD and CVD-free was 76.5%, and it was 59.1% in class four. (4) Conclusion: In conclusion, our results confirm the excellence of the prediction model for CVD in patients with SDB and verify the possibility of prediction within ten years of the CVDs that may occur in patients with SDB.