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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 111939
Pei Wen Tung ◽  
Amber Burt ◽  
Margaret Karagas ◽  
Brian P. Jackson ◽  
Tracy Punshon ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 76 ◽  
pp. 102057
Arthur Sillah ◽  
Nathaniel F. Watson ◽  
Ulrike Peters ◽  
Mary L. Biggs ◽  
F. Javier Nieto ◽  

Jakob Weitzer ◽  
Claudia Trudel-Fitzgerald ◽  
Olivia I. Okereke ◽  
Ichiro Kawachi ◽  
Eva Schernhammer

AbstractDispositional optimism is a potentially modifiable factor and has been associated with multiple physical health outcomes, but its relationship with depression, especially later in life, remains unclear. In the Nurses´ Health Study (n = 33,483), we examined associations between dispositional optimism and depression risk in women aged 57–85 (mean = 69.9, SD = 6.8), with 4,051 cases of incident depression and 10 years of follow-up (2004–2014). We defined depression as either having a physician/clinician-diagnosed depression, or regularly using antidepressants, or the presence of severe depressive symptoms using validated self-reported scales. Age- and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) across optimism quartiles and for a 1-standard deviation (SD) increment of the optimism score. In sensitivity analyses we explored more restrictive definitions of depression, potential mediators, and moderators. In multivariable-adjusted models, women with greater optimism (top vs. bottom quartile) had a 27% (95%CI = 19–34%) lower risk of depression. Every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 15% (95%CI = 12–18%) lower depression risk. When applying a more restrictive definition for clinical depression, the association was considerably attenuated (every 1-SD increase in the optimism score was associated with a 6% (95%CI = 2–10%-) lower depression risk. Stratified analyses by baseline depressive symptoms, age, race, and birth region revealed comparable estimates, while mediators (emotional support, social network size, healthy lifestyle), when combined, explained approximately 10% of the optimism-depression association. As social and behavioral factors only explained a small proportion of the association, future research should investigate other potential pathways, such as coping strategies, that may relate optimism to depression risk.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Minghua Tang ◽  
Kinzie L. Matz ◽  
Lillian M. Berman ◽  
Kathryn N. Davis ◽  
Edward L. Melanson ◽  

Background: An urgent need exists for evidence-based dietary guidance early in life, particularly regarding protein intake. However, a significant knowledge gap exists in the effects of protein-rich foods on growth and development during early complementary feeding.Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial of infant growth and gut health (primary outcomes). We directly compare the effects of dietary patterns with common protein-rich foods (meat, dairy, plant) on infant growth trajectories and gut microbiota development (monthly assessments) during early complementary feeding in both breast- and formula-fed infants. Five-month-old infants (up to n = 300) are randomized to a meat-, dairy-, plant-based complementary diet or a reference group (standard of care) from 5 to 12 months of age, with a 24-month follow-up assessment. Infants are matched for sex, mode of delivery and mode of feeding using stratified randomization. Growth assessments include length, weight, head circumference and body composition. Gut microbiota assessments include both 16S rRNA profiling and metagenomics sequencing. The primary analyses will evaluate the longitudinal effects of the different diets on both anthropometric measures and gut microbiota. The secondary analysis will evaluate the potential associations between gut microbiota and infant growth.Discussion: Findings are expected to have significant scientific and health implications for identifying beneficial gut microbial changes and dietary patterns and for informing dietary interventions to prevent the risk of overweight and later obesity, and promote optimal health.Clinical Trial, identifier: NCT05012930.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Karine Vidal ◽  
Shamima Sultana ◽  
Alberto Prieto Patron ◽  
Irene Salvi ◽  
Maya Shevlyakova ◽  

Objectives: Risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in community settings are not fully understood, especially in low-income countries. We examined the incidence and risk factors associated with ARIs in under-two children from the Microbiota and Health study.Methods: Children from a peri-urban area of Dhaka (Bangladesh) were followed from birth to 2 years of age by both active surveillance of ARIs and regular scheduled visits. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected during scheduled visits for detection of bacterial facultative respiratory pathogens. Information on socioeconomic, environmental, and household conditions, and mother and child characteristics were collected. A hierarchical modeling approach was used to identify proximate determinants of ARIs.Results: Of 267 infants, 87.3% experienced at least one ARI episode during the first 2 years of life. The peak incidence of ARIs was 330 infections per 100 infant-years and occurred between 2 and 4 months of age. Season was the main risk factor (rainy monsoon season, incidence rate ratio [IRR] 2.43 [1.92–3.07]; cool dry winter, IRR 2.10 [1.65–2.67] compared with hot dry summer) in the first 2 years of life. In addition, during the first 6 months of life, young maternal age (<22 years; IRR 1.34 [1.01–1.77]) and low birth weight (<2,500 g; IRR 1.39 [1.03–1.89]) were associated with higher ARI incidence.Conclusions: Reminiscent of industrialized settings, cool rainy season rather than socioeconomic and hygiene conditions was a major risk factor for ARIs in peri-urban Bangladesh. Understanding the causal links between seasonally variable factors such as temperature, humidity, crowding, diet, and ARIs will inform prevention measures.

Thorax ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. thoraxjnl-2021-217041
Talat Islam ◽  
Jessica Braymiller ◽  
Sandrah P Eckel ◽  
Feifei Liu ◽  
Alayna P Tackett ◽  

RationaleDespite high prevalence of e-cigarette use (vaping), little is currently known regarding the health effects of secondhand nicotine vape exposure.ObjectiveTo investigate whether exposure to secondhand nicotine vape exposure is associated with adverse respiratory health symptoms among young adults.MethodWe investigated the effect of secondhand nicotine vape exposure on annually reported wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath in the prospective Southern California Children Health Study cohort. Data were collected from study participants (n=2097) with repeated annual surveys from 2014 (average age: 17.3 years) to 2019 (average age: 21.9). We used mixed effect logistic regression to evaluate the association between secondhand nicotine vape and respiratory symptoms after controlling for relevant confounders.ResultsPrevalence of secondhand nicotine vape increased from 11.7% to 15.6% during the study period in this population. Prevalence of wheeze, bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath ranged from 12.3% to 14.9%, 19.4% to 26.0% and 16.5% to 18.1%, respectively, during the study period. Associations of secondhand nicotine vape exposure with bronchitic symptoms (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.84) and shortness of breath (OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.21) were observed after controlling for vaping, active and passive exposure to tobacco or cannabis, and demographic characteristics (age, gender, race/ethnicity and parental education). Stronger associations were observed when analysis was restricted to participants who were neither smokers nor vapers. There were no associations with wheezing after adjustment for confounders.ConclusionSecondhand nicotine vape exposure was associated with increased risk of bronchitic symptoms and shortness of breath among young adults.

Annerine Roos ◽  
Catherine J. Wedderburn ◽  
Jean-Paul Fouche ◽  
Shantanu H Joshi ◽  
Katherine L Narr ◽  

AbstractPrenatal exposure to maternal depression increases the risk for onset of emotional and behavioral disorders in children. We investigated the effects of exposure to prenatal depression on white matter microstructural integrity at birth and at 2-3 years, and associated neurodevelopment. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired for children of the Drakenstein Child Health Study at 2-4 weeks postpartum (n=70, 47% boys) and at 2-3 years of age (n=60, 58% boys). Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to compare, using an ROI based approach, diffusion tensor metrics across groups defined by presence (>19 on Beck’s Depression Inventory and/or >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) or absence (below depression thresholds) of depression, and associations with neurodevelopmental measures at age 2-3 years were determined. We did not detect group differences in white matter integrity at neonatal age, but at 2-3 years, children in the exposed group demonstrated higher fractional anisotropy, and lower mean and radial diffusivity in association tracts compared to controls. This was notable in the sagittal stratum (radial diffusivity: p<0.01). Altered white matter integrity metrics were also observed in projection tracts, including the corona radiata, which associated with cognitive and motor outcomes in exposed 2-3-year-olds (p<0.05). Our findings of widespread white matter alterations in 2-3-year-old children with prenatal exposure to depression are consistent with previous findings, as well as with neuroimaging findings in adults with major depression. Further, we identified novel associations of altered white matter integrity with cognitive development in depression-exposed children, suggesting that these neuroimaging findings may have early functional impact.

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