computational method
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2022 ◽  
Vol 122 ◽  
pp. 108293
Xiaobin Liu ◽  
Shiliang Zhang

2022 ◽  
Sanju Sinha ◽  
Rahulsimham vegesna ◽  
Saugato Rahman Dhruba ◽  
Wei Wu ◽  
D. Lucas Kerr ◽  

Tailoring the best treatments to cancer patients is an important open challenge. Here, we build a precision oncology data science and software framework for PERsonalized single-Cell Expression-based Planning for Treatments In Oncology (PERCEPTION). Our approach capitalizes on recently published matched bulk and single-cell transcriptome profiles of large-scale cell-line drug screens to build treatment response models from patient single-cell (SC) tumor transcriptomics. First, we show that PERCEPTION successfully predicts the response to monotherapy and combination treatments in screens performed in cancer and patient-tumor-derived primary cells based on SC-expression profiles. Second, it successfully stratifies responders to combination therapy based on the patient tumor SC-expression in two very recent multiple myeloma and breast cancer clinical trials. Thirdly, it captures the development of clinical resistance to five standard tyrosine kinase inhibitors using tumor SC-expression profiles obtained during treatment in a lung cancer patient cohort. Notably, PERCEPTION outperforms state-of-the-art bulk expression-based predictors in all three clinical cohorts. In sum, this study provides a first-of-its-kind conceptual and computational method that is predictive of response to therapy in patients, based on the clonal SC gene expression of their tumors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Manyun Guo ◽  
Yucheng Ma ◽  
Wanyuan Liu ◽  
Zuyi Yuan

AbstractNucleocapsid protein (NC) in the group-specific antigen (gag) of retrovirus is essential in the interactions of most retroviral gag proteins with RNAs. Computational method to predict NCs would benefit subsequent structure analysis and functional study on them. However, no computational method to predict the exact locations of NCs in retroviruses has been proposed yet. The wide range of length variation of NCs also increases the difficulties. In this paper, a computational method to identify NCs in retroviruses is proposed. All available retrovirus sequences with NC annotations were collected from NCBI. Models based on random forest (RF) and weighted support vector machine (WSVM) were built to predict initiation and termination sites of NCs. Factor analysis scales of generalized amino acid information along with position weight matrix were utilized to generate the feature space. Homology based gene prediction methods were also compared and integrated to bring out better predicting performance. Candidate initiation and termination sites predicted were then combined and screened according to their intervals, decision values and alignment scores. All available gag sequences without NC annotations were scanned with the model to detect putative NCs. Geometric means of sensitivity and specificity generated from prediction of initiation and termination sites under fivefold cross-validation are 0.9900 and 0.9548 respectively. 90.91% of all the collected retrovirus sequences with NC annotations could be predicted totally correct by the model combining WSVM, RF and simple alignment. The composite model performs better than the simplex ones. 235 putative NCs in unannotated gags were detected by the model. Our prediction method performs well on NC recognition and could also be expanded to solve other gene prediction problems, especially those whose training samples have large length variations.

BME Frontiers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Angela Zhang ◽  
Amil Khan ◽  
Saisidharth Majeti ◽  
Judy Pham ◽  
Christopher Nguyen ◽  

Objective and Impact Statement. We propose an automated method of predicting Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) from CT scans. A deep convolutional network segments regions of interest from the scans. These regions are then combined with MRI information to predict NPH. To our knowledge, this is the first method which automatically predicts NPH from CT scans and incorporates diffusion tractography information for prediction. Introduction. Due to their low cost and high versatility, CT scans are often used in NPH diagnosis. No well-defined and effective protocol currently exists for analysis of CT scans for NPH. Evans’ index, an approximation of the ventricle to brain volume using one 2D image slice, has been proposed but is not robust. The proposed approach is an effective way to quantify regions of interest and offers a computational method for predicting NPH. Methods. We propose a novel method to predict NPH by combining regions of interest segmented from CT scans with connectome data to compute features which capture the impact of enlarged ventricles by excluding fiber tracts passing through these regions. The segmentation and network features are used to train a model for NPH prediction. Results. Our method outperforms the current state-of-the-art by 9 precision points and 29 recall points. Our segmentation model outperforms the current state-of-the-art in segmenting the ventricle, gray-white matter, and subarachnoid space in CT scans. Conclusion. Our experimental results demonstrate that fast and accurate volumetric segmentation of CT brain scans can help improve the NPH diagnosis process, and network properties can increase NPH prediction accuracy.

2022 ◽  
Shanlin Ke ◽  
Yandong Xiao ◽  
Scott T. Weiss ◽  
Xinhua Chen ◽  
Ciaran P. Kelly ◽  

The indigenous gut microbes have co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. Those gut microbes play a crucial role in host health and disease. In particular, they protect the host against incursion by exogenous and often harmful microorganisms, a mechanism known as colonization resistance (CR). Yet, identifying the exact microbes responsible for the gut microbiota-mediated CR against a particular pathogen remains a fundamental challenge in microbiome research. Here, we develop a computational method --- Generalized Microbe-Phenotype Triangulation (GMPT) to systematically identify causal microbes that directly influence the microbiota-mediated CR against a pathogen. We systematically validate GMPT using a classical population dynamics model in community ecology, and then apply it to microbiome data from two mouse studies on C. difficile infection. The developed method will not only significantly advance our understanding of CR mechanisms but also pave the way for the rational design of microbiome-based therapies for preventing and treating enteric infections.

2022 ◽  
Yasaman Karami ◽  
Samuel Murail ◽  
Julien Giribaldi ◽  
Benjamin Lefranc ◽  
Jerome Leprince ◽  

Peptides have recently re-gained interest as therapeutic candidates but their development remains confronted with several limitations including low bioavailability. Backbone head-to-tail cyclization is one effective strategy of peptide-based drug design to stabilize the conformation of bioactive peptides while preserving peptide properties in terms of low toxicity, binding affinity, target selectivity and preventing enzymatic degradation. However, very little is known about the sequence-structure relationship requirements of designing linkers for peptide cyclization in a rational manner. Recently, we have shown that large scale data-mining of available protein structures can lead to the precise identification of protein loop conformations, even from remote structural classes. Here, we transpose this approach to head-to-tail peptide cyclization. Firstly we show that given a linker sequence and the conformation of the linear peptide, it is possible to accurately predict the cyclized peptide conformation improving by over 1 A over pre-existing protocols. Secondly, and more importantly, we show that is is possible to elaborate on the information inferred from protein structures to propose effective candidate linker sequences constrained by length and amino acid composition, providing the first framework for the rational peptide head-to-tail cyclization. As functional validation, we apply it to the design of a head-to-tail cyclized derivative of urotensin II, an 11-residue long peptide which exerts a broad array of biologic activities, making its cognate receptor a valuable and innovative therapeutic or diagnostic target. We propose a three amino acid candidate linker, leading to the first synthesized 14-residue long cyclic UII analogue with excellent retention of in vitro activity.

2022 ◽  
Michael M Saint-Antoine ◽  
Abhyudai Singh

In isogenic cell populations, cells can switch back and forth between different gene expression states. These expression states can be biologically relevant. For example, a certain expression state may cause a tumor cell to be resistant to treatment, while another state may leave it vulnerable to treatment. However, estimating the rates of state-switching can be difficult, because experimentally measuring a cell's transcriptome often involves destroying the cell, so it can only be measured once. In this paper, we propose a computational method to estimate the rate of switching between expression states, given data from a Luria-Delbrück style fluctuation test that is experimentally simple and feasible. We then benchmark this method using simulated data to test its efficacy, with varying assumptions made about cell cycle timing distribution in the simulations.

2022 ◽  
Etienne Sollier ◽  
Jack Kuipers ◽  
Niko Beerenwinkel ◽  
Koichi Takahashi ◽  
Katharina Jahn

Reconstructing the history of somatic DNA alterations that occurred in a tumour can help understand its evolution and predict its resistance to treatment. Single-cell DNA sequencing (scDNAseq) can be used to investigate clonal heterogeneity and to inform phylogeny reconstruction. However, existing phylogenetic methods for scDNAseq data are designed either for point mutations or for large copy number variations, but not for both types of events simultaneously. Here, we develop COMPASS, a computational method for inferring the joint phylogeny of mutations and copy number alterations from targeted scDNAseq data. We evaluate COMPASS on simulated data and show that it outperforms existing methods. We apply COMPASS to a large cohort of 123 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and detect copy number alterations, including subclonal ones, which are in agreement with current knowledge of AML development. We further used bulk SNP array data to orthogonally validate or findings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Nicolas Bertin ◽  
L.A. Zepeda-Ruiz ◽  
V.V. Bulatov

AbstractDirect Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations are being increasingly employed to model dislocation-mediated crystal plasticity with atomic resolution. Thanks to the dislocation extraction algorithm (DXA), dislocation lines can be now accurately detected and positioned in space and their Burgers vector unambiguously identified in silico, while the simulation is being performed. However, DXA extracts static snapshots of dislocation configurations that by themselves present no information on dislocation motion. Referred to as a sweep-tracing algorithm (STA), here we introduce a practical computational method to observe dislocation motion and to accurately quantify its important characteristics such as preferential slip planes (slip crystallography). STA reconnects pairs of successive snapshots extracted by DXA and computes elementary slip facets thus precisely tracing the motion of dislocation segments from one snapshot to the next. As a testbed for our new method, we apply STA to the analysis of dislocation motion in large-scale MD simulations of single crystal plasticity in BCC metals. We observe that, when the crystal is subjected to uniaxial deformation along its [001] axis, dislocation slip predominantly occurs on the {112} maximum resolved shear stress plane under tension, while in compression slip is non-crystallographic (pencil) resulting in asymmetric mechanical response. The marked contrast in the observed slip crystallography is attributed to the twinning/anti-twinning asymmetry of shears in the {112} planes relatively favoring dislocation motion in the twinning sense while hindering dislocations from moving in the anti-twinning directions.

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