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2021 ◽  
Gudrun Rohde ◽  
Sølvi Helseth ◽  
Hilde Timenes Mikkelsen ◽  
Siv Skarstein ◽  
Milada Cvancarova Småstuen ◽  

Abstract BackgroundFor many adults, their role as a parent is a vital part of their lives. This role is likely to be associated with a parent’s health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The aim of this study was to explore the associations between gender, demographic and psychosocial variables, and HRQOL pain in parents of 14–15-year-old adolescents.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study that included 561 parents. Data on demographic, psychosocial variables and pain were collected using validated instruments. HRQOL was assessed using the RAND-36. Data were analysed using univariate and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses.ResultsFour hundred and thirty-six (78%) mothers and 125 (22%) fathers with a mean age of 45 (SD = 5) years were included. Eighty-one per cent were married/cohabiting, 74% worked full time, and 50% had university education of more than 4 years. Almost one-third reported daily or weekly pain, and more than half (58%) reported using pain analgesics during the previous 4 weeks. Mothers reported significantly lower scores on self-efficacy, self-esteem and for all RAND-36 domains, including the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) and experienced greater stress than fathers. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that working part-time (beta = 0.40) or full time (beta = 0.52) (reference: not working) had the strongest positive effect on PCS. Absence from work for >10 days (beta = –0.24) (reference: no absence), short-term pain (beta = –0.14), chronic pain (beta = –0.37) (reference: no pain), and stress (beta= –0.10) had the strongest negative effects on PCS. High self-esteem (beta = 0.11) had the strongest positive effect, whereas stress (beta = –0.58) and absence from work for >10 days (beta = –0.11) (reference: no absence) had the strongest negative effects on MCS.ConclusionMothers reported significantly lower scores on self-efficacy, self-esteem, and HRQOL, and experienced greater stress than the fathers. A high proportion of parents reported pain. Pain, stress, and low work affiliation were strongly associated with decreased HRQOL in parents. We recommend that parents of adolescents should be provided guidance about coping with pain and stress, and facilitation of a strong work affiliation because these seem to be important to parents’ HRQOL.

2021 ◽  
pp. jrheum.201611
Jennifer J.Y. Lee ◽  
Ronald M. Laxer ◽  
Brian M. Feldman ◽  
Claire E.H. Barber ◽  
Michelle Batthish ◽  

Objective To examine Canadian pediatric rheumatology workforce and care processes. Methods Pediatric rheumatologists and allied health professionals (AHPs) participated. A designee from each academic centre provided workforce information including number of providers, total and breakdown of full-time equivalents (FTE), and triage processes. We calculated the clinical care FTE (cFTE) available per 75,000 (recommended benchmark) and 300,000 (adjusted) children using 2019 census data. The national workforce deficit was calculated as the difference between current and expected cFTEs. Remaining respondents were asked about ambulatory practices. Results The response rate of survey A (workforce information) and survey B (ambulatory practice information) was 100% and 54%, respectively. The majority of rheumatologists (91%) practiced in academic centres. The median number of rheumatologists per centre was 3 (IQR:3) and median cFTE was 1.8 (IQR:1.5). The median cFTE per 75,000 was 0.2 (IQR:0.3) with a national deficit of 80 cFTEs. With the adjusted benchmark, there was no national deficit but a regional maldistribution of rheumatologists. All centres engaged in multidisciplinary practices with a median of 4 different AHPs, although the median FTE for AHPs was ≤1. Most centres (87%) utilized a centralized triage process. Of 9 (60%) centres that used an electronic triage process, 6 were able to calculate wait times. Most clinicians integrated quality improvement practices, such as pre-visit planning (68%), post-visit planning (68%), and periodic health outcome monitoring (36-59%). Conclusion This study confirms a national deficit at the current recommended benchmark. Most rheumatologists work in multidisciplinary teams, but AHP support may be inadequate.

2021 ◽  
Tomomi Anan ◽  
Tomohiro Ishimaru ◽  
Ayako Hino ◽  
Tomohisa Nagata ◽  
Seiichiro Tateishi ◽  

Background: During a pandemic, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) play an important role in protecting oneself from infection and preventing the spread of infection to others. There are large regional differences in COVID-19 infection rates in Japan. We hypothesized that the local infection incidence may affect adherence to individual NPIs. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted online among full-time workers in Japan in December 2020. Data from a total of 27,036 participants were analyzed. The questionnaire asked the respondents to identify their habits regarding seven well-known NPIs. Results: Compared to the region with the lowest infection rate, the odds ratios for the region with the highest infection rate were 1.24 (p<0.001) for wearing a mask in public, 1.08 (p=0.157) for washing hands after using the bathroom, 1.17 (p=0.031) for disinfecting hands with alcohol sanitizers when entering indoors, 1.54 (p<0.001) for gargling when returning home, 1.45 (p<0.001) for ventilating the room, 1.33 (p<0.001) for disinfecting or washing hands after touching frequently touched surfaces, and 1.32 (p<0.001) for carrying alcohol sanitizers when outdoors. Five of the seven NPIs showed statistically significant trends across regional infection levels, the two exceptions being wearing a mask in public and washing hands after using the bathroom. Multivariate adjustment did not change these trends. Conclusions: This study found that NPIs were more prevalent in regions with higher incidence rates of COVID-19 in Japanese workers. The findings suggest that the implementation of NPIs was influenced not only by personal attributes but also by contextual effects of the local infection level.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (9) ◽  
pp. 21
LaJuan Perronoski Fuller

The social norm theory suggests that leaders who rely on perceived norms (misperceptions) rather than actual norms may produce unfair work advantages. Furthermore, social norms alter ethical leadership behaviors. However, leadership adheres to social norms due to society&#39;s implied compliance in the absence of distributive injustice measurements. Therefore, distributive injustice may be a more salient predictor than distributive justice on affective organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to fill gaps in literature on distributive injustice and investigate negative influences on employees&rsquo; affective commitment. A distributive injustice scale was designed using employee perceptions of policies that create unfair advantages and meritless rewards. The distributive injustice scale consisted of 14 items. A survey was sent to 481 full-time employees in various industries throughout the U.S. Correlation and regression model output indicated that unfair advantages and meritless rewards had a negative relationship and influence on employees&rsquo; affective commitment. Social norm policies that create unfair advantages and meritless rewards can be perceived as a divisionary tacit that negatively impacts affective commitment.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Aaron Rindflesch ◽  
Cindy Flom-Meland ◽  
Christine McCallum ◽  
Kelly Prescher ◽  
Emily Reynolds ◽  

Felix S. Hussenoeder ◽  
Erik Bodendieck ◽  
Ines Conrad ◽  
Franziska Jung ◽  
Steffi G. Riedel-Heller

Abstract Background We want to analyze the effect of migration background (MB) on physician burnout and work-life balance. Methods In September 2019, physicians from various specialties answered a questionnaire on work and health. We analyzed a subsample of 526 physicians that were working full time in a hospital, 14% with an MB and 47.9% were female. Results Multivariate analysis showed that physicians with an MB exhibit significantly less favorable scores on all three burnout dimensions, and this effect persisted in the regression analysis after adding age, gender, and marital status as control variables. There were no differences with regard to work-life balance. Conclusions To our knowledge, our study is the first one to suggest that MB plays a significant role in physician mental health. Future research will benefit from identifying the factors behind that connection, e.g., problems related to acculturation, communication and social integration, which can then be addressed by policymakers in order to maintain and improve the medical infrastructure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
pp. 259-280
William S Kiser

Abstract This article explores the continuities of forced labor in the Southwest, where peonage and the partido system lasted for more than a century after the Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery, and places it within the broader context of modern global slavery. Debt peonage and peasant sharecropping—known locally as the partido—are usually classified as two different forms of unfree labor, but in the nineteenth- and twentieth-century Southwest they had much in common and were oftentimes mutually reinforcing. Through the legal and cultural intricacies of the partido system, thousands of landless Hispanos in the northern half of New Mexico and southern reaches of Colorado worked full-time in exchange for a small share of the annual wool harvest. Many of those same men became debt-bound to the tiny percentage of wealthy families who owned the sheep herds and grazing ranges. Through these means, partidarios (sheep renters) lost much if not all of their autonomy and became, to varying degrees depending on the disposition of their creditor and benefactor, debt peons.

2021 ◽  
Alexander Copper ◽  
Rolf Scharfbillig ◽  
Thuy Phuong Nguyen ◽  
Cassandra Collins

Abstract Background: The Australian wine industry is a valuable part of the wider Australian economy worth approximately AUD$45billion annually and employs 163,790 people either full time or part time. Australian agricultural industries are amongst the nation’s most dangerous workplaces with joint, ligament, muscle and tendon injuries being commonplace along with wounds, lacerations and musculoskeletal diseases. It is therefore important to try and minimise the risk of injuries to workers as much as possible. The aims of this study were to (1) identify the types of lower limb problems that occur in the Australian wine industry and (2) identify the types of safety footwear used. Methods: Participants were recruited from the Australian wine industry. The study was a cross sectional anonymous survey of 82 questions with n=207 respondents. Questions related to job role performed, types of lower limb problems experienced, level of pain, restriction of activities, types of footwear worn, general health and physical health.Results: The main working roles were 73.4% winery, 52.2% vineyard, 39.6% laboratory, 32.4% cellar door and 8.2% office, with 63.3% of participants working in more than one role. Lower back pain was the most commonly reported problem at 56% followed by foot pain 36.7%, knee pain 24.6 %, leg pain 21.3%, ankle pain 17.9%, hip pain 15.5%, toe pain 13% and heel pain 11.1%. The most popular footwear used by participants was the elastic sided safety boot, followed by a high cut lace up safety boot with side zip. Overall, although the pain experienced was moderate to severe, it did not impact the workers ability to perform their duties and the majority self-reported as being in very good general and physical health.Conclusion: To date no data has been published on the frequency of lower limb problems or the types of safety footwear worn in the Australian wine industry. This study demonstrated that elastic sided safety boots were the most popular amongst respondents and with that, certain lower limb problems can occur. Therefore, further research into the safety footwear used is needed to better support workers health while working in varied roles and conditions.

Criminology ◽  
2021 ◽  

Robert King Merton (b. 4 July 1910–d. 23 February 2003) was born to Yiddish-speaking Russian-Jewish parents in South Philadelphia, as Meyer Robert Schkolnick. Merton’s mother, Ida Rasovskaya, was a socialist and his father, Aaron Schkolnick, identified at his US port of entry as Harrie Skolnick, Hebrew and tailor. His parents immigrated to the United States from eastern Europe in 1904. Raised in an apartment above his father’s dairy products shop until the building burned down, Merton had an interesting wealth of cultural experiences. At fourteen years old, he performed magic tricks at parties under the stage name Robert K. Merlin. As a student at South Philadelphia High School, he frequently visited nearby cultural and educational venues, including the Andrew Carnegie Library, Central Library, the Academy of Music, and the Museum of Arts. Merton believed his childhood in South Philadelphia provided an abundance of social, cultural, human, and public capital; every type of capital he needed except financial. After acceptance to Temple University, he changed his name to Robert Merton, worked as a research assistant under George E. Simpson on a project about race and media, and graduated in 1931. Merton married his first wife, Suzanne Carhart, in 1934, with whom he had three children, a son named Robert C. Merton, and daughters Stephanie Merton Tombrello and Vanessa Merton. Merton earned both his Master’s degree, in 1932, and his doctorate, in 1936, at Harvard, where he taught until 1938. Merton then served as professor and chair of the Department of Sociology at Tulane University before joining Columbia University in 1941, where he remained until his retirement from full-time academic work in 1979. Spending most of his life in the Manhattan borough of New York City until his death in 2003, Merton taught as a Special Service Professor, or emeritus faculty, at Columbia University after he retired and served as an adjunct professor at Rockefeller University until 1984. Professional accomplishments include winning a Guggenheim, Parson Prize, and National Medal of Sciences; he was the first sociologist invited to the National Academy of Science, and he served as president of the American Sociological Society. Many of Merton’s childhood experiences would influence his theory of social structure, particularly the concept of the “reference group.” Other notable sociological concepts he developed include “opportunity structure,” “ritualism,” “role model,” “opinion leader,” “unintended consequences,” “self-fulfilling prophecy,” “focus group,” “peer group,” “role strain,” and “deviant behavior.” His record of achievements has led some to refer to Robert Merton as the father of sociology, Mr. Sociology, or the most influential American sociologist of the 20th century.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 15398
Kristen Faile ◽  
Zahra Heydarifard ◽  
Dina Krasikova

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