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Microbiome ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hwee Sze Tee ◽  
David Waite ◽  
Gavin Lear ◽  
Kim Marie Handley

Abstract Background Coastal aquatic ecosystems include chemically distinct, but highly interconnected environments. Across a freshwater-to-marine transect, aquatic communities are exposed to large variations in salinity and nutrient availability as tidal cycles create periodic fluctuations in local conditions. These factors are predicted to strongly influence the resident microbial community structure and functioning, and alter the structure of aquatic food webs and biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, little is known about the spatial distribution of metabolic properties across salinity gradients, and no study has simultaneously surveyed the sediment and water environments. Here, we determined patterns and drivers of benthic and planktonic prokaryotic and microeukaryotic community assembly across a river and tidal lagoon system by collecting sediments and planktonic biomass at nine shallow subtidal sites in the summer. Genomic and transcriptomic analyses, alongside a suite of complementary geochemical data, were used to determine patterns in the distribution of taxa, mechanisms of salt tolerance, and nutrient cycling. Results Taxonomic and metabolic profiles related to salt tolerance and nutrient cycling of the aquatic microbiome were found to decrease in similarity with increasing salinity, and distinct trends in diversity were observed between the water column and sediment. Non-saline and saline communities adopted divergent strategies for osmoregulation, with an increase in osmoregulation-related transcript expression as salinity increased in the water column due to lineage-specific adaptations to salt tolerance. Results indicated a transition from phosphate limitation in freshwater habitats to nutrient-rich conditions in the brackish zone, where distinct carbon, nitrogen and sulfur cycling processes dominated. Phosphorus acquisition-related activity was highest in the freshwater zone, along with dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in freshwater sediment. Activity associated with denitrification, sulfur metabolism and photosynthesis were instead highest in the brackish zone, where photosynthesis was dominated by distinct microeukaryotes in water (Cryptophyta) and sediment (diatoms). Despite microeukaryotes and archaea being rare relative to bacteria, results indicate that they contributed more to photosynthesis and ammonia oxidation, respectively. Conclusions Our study demonstrates clear freshwater–saline and sediment–water ecosystem boundaries in an interconnected coastal aquatic system and provides a framework for understanding the relative importance of salinity, planktonic-versus-benthic habitats and nutrient availability in shaping aquatic microbial metabolic processes, particularly in tidal lagoon systems.


Author(s):  
Lin Gu ◽  
Zhen-Zhen Li ◽  
Niang-Huei Peng ◽  
Jian-Fu Zhou ◽  
Bi-Rong Wei ◽  
...  

Objectives: This study investigated institutional and personal barriers to and facilitators of neonatal palliative care facing neonatal professionals in China. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire surveyed 231 neonatal clinicians employed in 5 neonatal intensive care units from 2 children’s hospitals and 3 medical centers in China. Measurements: The translated modified version of the Neonatal Palliative Care Attitude Scale was used to survey neonatal clinicians’ attitudes and beliefs regarding neonatal palliative care. Results: Findings highlight 4 facilitators and 5 barriers among participating clinicians. Participants gave contradictory responses regarding the relative importance of curative treatment versus palliative care in the NICU. Negatively traumatic feelings, cultural issues and moral distress may impact this contradictory response and discourage clinicians from providing neonatal palliative care. Additionally, neonatologists and nurses held differing attitudes on several topics (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Further research should address strategies to improve knowledge and attitudes and relieve moral distress in NICU clinicians. Neonatal clinicians providing neonatal palliative care should receive regular palliative care training addressing culture-specific issues and communication skills. Practice Implications: Study findings will be beneficial to inform clinical education and practice. Regular interdisciplinary team training is needed to enhance support for palliative care and decrease clinicians’ moral distress during end-of-life care.


2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (2) ◽  
pp. 227-284
Author(s):  
Thera Marie Crane ◽  
Bastian Persohn

This paper presents some key findings of studies of actionality and the verbal grammar–lexicon interface in two Nguni Bantu languages of South Africa, Xhosa and Southern Ndebele. We describe interactions between grammatical tense marking (and other sentential bounding elements) and lexical verb types, arguing for the salience of inchoative verbs, which lexically encode a resultant state, and, in particular, a sub-class of inchoative verbs, biphasal verbs, which encode both a resultant state and the “coming-to-be” phase leading up to that state. We further discuss other important features of actional classes in Xhosa and Southern Ndebele, including topics such as the role of participant structure and the relative importance of cross-linguistically prominent distinctions such as that between Vendlerian activities and accomplishments. Although differences between Xhosa and Southern Ndebele are evident both in the behaviour of individual tense-aspect forms and in the interpretive possibilities of specific verbs, the general patterns are quite similar. This similarity suggests that the patterns are likely to extend to other Nguni languages, as well, and that cross-linguistic comparison of particular lexical items across these languages are both feasible and likely to bear fruit.


Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (18) ◽  
pp. 2301
Author(s):  
Laurent Patier ◽  
Sébastien Lalléchère

This work is dedicated to the assessment of the filtering performances of an optoelectronic sensor for space applications. Particular care is taken concerning the power supply subsystem (here voltage shifter integrated circuit), which is part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance of an imaging equipment embedded on spacecrafts. The proposed methodology aims at two major targets: First, evaluating the Filter Effectiveness (FE) subject concerning varying parameters (including filter topology, parasitic effects and source/load impedance variations); second, quantifying the relative importance of representative equivalent electrical components through sensitivity analyses (nominal and parasitic values). The latter point is of utmost importance considering the expected versatility of such systems, such as manufacturing tolerances, for instance. Nominal values and/or components are often badly defined for confidentiality reasons, lack of knowledge or pure ignorance of inputs. An analytical deterministic formulation (here through the transfer matrix approach) is proposed and completed with an original stochastic strategy (Reduced Order Clustering, ROC). This ensures the reliable assessment of both statistical filter performances and most influential parameters, jointly with computational resources saving relatively to brute force Monte Carlo simulations.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carl-Johan Rubin ◽  
Erik D Enbody ◽  
Mariya P Dobreva ◽  
Arkhat Abzhanov ◽  
Brian W Davis ◽  
...  

Recent adaptive radiations are models for investigating mechanisms contributing to the evolution of biodiversity. An unresolved question is the relative importance of new mutations, ancestral variants, and introgressive hybridization for phenotypic evolution and speciation. Here we address this issue using Darwin's finches, which vary in size from an 8g warbler finch with a pointed beak to a 40g large ground finch with a massive blunt beak. We present a highly contiguous genome assembly for one of the species and investigate the genomic architecture underlying phenotypic diversity in the entire radiation. Admixture mapping for beak and body size in the small, medium and large ground finches revealed 28 loci showing strong genetic differentiation. These loci represent ancestral haplotype blocks with origins as old as the Darwin's finch phylogeny (1-2 million years). Genes expressed in the developing beak are overrepresented in these genomic regions. Frequencies of allelic variants at the 28 loci covary with phenotypic similarities in body and beak size across the Darwin's finch phylogeny. These ancestral haplotypes constitute genetic modules for selection, and act as key determinants of the exceptional phenotypic diversity of Darwin's finches. Such ancestral haplotype blocks can be critical for how species adapt to environmental variability and change.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nena Bollen ◽  
Maria Artesi ◽  
Keith Durkin ◽  
Samuel L. Hong ◽  
Barney Potter ◽  
...  

AbstractAt the end of 2020, several new variants of SARS-CoV-2—designated variants of concern—were detected and quickly suspected to be associated with a higher transmissibility and possible escape of vaccine-induced immunity. In Belgium, this discovery has motivated the initiation of a more ambitious genomic surveillance program, which is drastically increasing the number of SARS-CoV-2 genomes to analyse for monitoring the circulation of viral lineages and variants of concern. In order to efficiently analyse the massive collection of genomic data that are the result of such increased sequencing efforts, streamlined analytical strategies are crucial. In this study, we illustrate how to efficiently map the spatio-temporal dispersal of target mutations at a regional level. As a proof of concept, we focus on the Belgian province of Liège that has been consistently sampled throughout 2020, but was also one of the main epicenters of the second European epidemic wave. Specifically, we employ a recently developed phylogeographic workflow to infer the regional dispersal history of viral lineages associated with three specific mutations on the spike protein (S98F, A222V and S477N) and to quantify their relative importance through time. Our analytical pipeline enables analysing large data sets and has the potential to be quickly applied and updated to track target mutations in space and time throughout the course of an epidemic.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Emer Tucay Quezon

Proper completion of a public building construction project is dependent on the effectiveness of the construction supervision. However, it has become increasingly difficult to finish construction projects within the specified time, budget, and quality standards due to poor supervision practices. Approaches such as quantitative and qualitative research and descriptive research types were used in this study. Questionnaires survey were issued to 104 respondents, with 11 representing clients, 22 representing consultants, and 71 representing contractors. There were 33 factors identified, which were then divided into seven groups for further analysis. It was discovered that the top-ranked factors that influence construction supervision practice are: supervisors' lack of skills and experience, incompleteness and consistency in the design, lack of appropriate decision making, location of the project, material and equipment costs, a lack of construction materials supply, and effect of weather conditions. The Relative Importance Index was calculated to determine whether or not the parties agreed on the factors and ranked them according to their importance. Most respondents suggested that supervisors should receive proper training, and comprehensive and detailed drawings should be provided on time. In addition, it was discovered that the top three essential group elements affecting supervision practice of the public building project are supervisory, design, and management-related aspects.


This paper studies the impact of mudra on small and micro enterprises in terms of income generation, business expansion, standard of living, and employment generation in the process. The research is socio-economic research. The project applied mean difference method for quantitative data analysis and relative importance index method to analyse qualitative data. Paper used Schedule to conduct personal interviews to collect data from 384 respondents using convenience sampling. It was found that to some extent, the schemes have been successful in providing loans to MSME sector. The enterprises are benefitted due to collateral free mudra loan in terms of income generation and business expansion. But there was no significant impact on employment generation and standard of living as proved from the data collected from the respondents due to mudra loan. Also, no significant improvement in human development index was found among the respondents. No significant improvements in quality of food and nutrition were found as informed by the respondents. Financial independence has not been achieved for the women entrepreneurs. Policy implications for government and bank has been discussed at the end of paper. The paper is based on the project funded by Indian Council of Social Science Research, New Delhi. This is a first kind of study conducted to study the impact of mudra loans on small and micro enterprises in India.


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