neuronal loss
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Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 286
Hesham Essa ◽  
Lee Peyton ◽  
Whidul Hasan ◽  
Brandon Emanuel León ◽  
Doo-Sup Choi

Alzheimer’s disease is the most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting more than 6 million US citizens and representing the most prevalent cause for dementia. Neurogenesis has been repeatedly reported to be impaired in AD mouse models, but the reason for this impairment remains unclear. Several key factors play a crucial role in AD including Aβ accumulation, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles accumulation, and neuronal loss (specifically in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus). Neurofibrillary tangles have been long associated with the neuronal loss in the dentate gyrus. Of note, Aβ accumulation plays an important role in the impairment of neurogenesis, but recent studies started to shed a light on the role of APP gene expression on the neurogenesis process. In this review, we will discuss the recent approaches to neurogenesis in Alzheimer disease and update the development of therapeutic methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 851
Santiago Rodriguez Ospina ◽  
Danielle Blazier ◽  
Marangelie Criado-Marrero ◽  
Lauren Gould ◽  
Niat Gebru ◽  

The microtubule-associated protein tau pathologically accumulates and aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies, leading to cognitive dysfunction and neuronal loss. Molecular chaperones, like small heat-shock proteins (sHsps), can help deter the accumulation of misfolded proteins, such as tau. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the overexpression of wild-type Hsp22 (wtHsp22) and its phosphomimetic (S24,57D) Hsp22 mutant (mtHsp22) could slow tau accumulation and preserve memory in a murine model of tauopathy, rTg4510. Our results show that Hsp22 protected against deficits in synaptic plasticity and cognition in the tauopathic brain. However, we did not detect a significant change in tau phosphorylation or levels in these mice. This led us to hypothesize that the functional benefit was realized through the restoration of dysfunctional pathways in hippocampi of tau transgenic mice since no significant benefit was measured in non-transgenic mice expressing wtHsp22 or mtHsp22. To identify these pathways, we performed mass spectrometry of tissue lysates from the injection site. Overall, our data reveal that Hsp22 overexpression in neurons promotes synaptic plasticity by regulating canonical pathways and upstream regulators that have been characterized as potential AD markers and synaptogenesis regulators, like EIF4E and NFKBIA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 845
Lulu Tian ◽  
Murad Al-Nusaif ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Song Li ◽  
Weidong Le

The meso-diencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons regulate various critical processes in the mammalian nervous system, including voluntary movement and a wide range of behaviors such as mood, reward, addiction, and stress. mdDA neuronal loss is linked with one of the most prominent human movement neurological disorders, Parkinson’s disease (PD). How these cells die and regenerate are two of the most hotly debated PD research topics. As for the latter, it has been long known that a series of transcription factors (TFs) involves the development of mdDA neurons, specifying cell types and controlling developmental patterns. In vitro and in vivo, TFs regulate the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, a dopamine transporter, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, and L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, all of which are critical for dopamine synthesis and transport in dopaminergic neurons (DA neurons). In this review, we encapsulate the molecular mechanism of TFs underlying embryonic growth and maturation of mdDA neurons and update achievements on dopaminergic cell therapy dependent on knowledge of TFs in mdDA neuronal development. We believe that a deeper understanding of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that influence DA neurons’ fate and development in the midbrain could lead to a better strategy for PD cell therapy.

Fatma Nihan Cankara ◽  
Meliha Sümeyye Kuş ◽  
Caner Günaydın ◽  
Sinan Şafak ◽  
Süleyman Sırrı Bilge ◽  

2022 ◽  
Wen Li ◽  
Guohua Jin

Alzheimer\'s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia worldwide. Although the great progress on the prevention and treatment of AD, no effective therapies are available as yet. With the increasing incidence of AD, it has brought a growing burden to the family and society. Histopathologically, AD is characterized by the presence of myloid β (Aβ) plaques composed of Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, which lead to neuronal loss. However, the full spectrum of precise molecular mechanism that contribute to AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that play a vital role in post-transcriptional regulation. Recent reports showed circRNAs to be an important player in the development of neurodegenerative diseases like AD. In this chapter, we review recent progress on understanding the role of circRNAs in AD, and many studies implicating specific circRNAs in the development of the disease. Moreover, we explore the potential promise of these findings for future diagnosis and treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
José Rodrigues do Carmo Neto ◽  
Arthur Wilson Florêncio da Costa ◽  
Yarlla Loyane Lira Braga ◽  
Fernanda Hélia Lucio ◽  
Ana Luisa Monteiro dos Santos Martins ◽  

The objective of this study was to evaluate the histopathological changes caused by infection with the Colombian strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) in the acute and chronic experimental phases. C57Bl/6 mice were infected with 1000 trypomastigote forms of the Colombian strain of T. cruzi. After 30 days (acute phase) and 90 days (early chronic phase) of infection, the animals were euthanized, and the colon was collected and divided into two parts: proximal and distal. The distal portion was used for histopathological analysis, whereas the proximal portion was used for quantification of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the weight of the animals and parasitemia were assessed. The infection induced gradual weight loss in the animals. In addition, the infection induced an increase in interferon gamma (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the intestine in the acute phase, in which this increase continued until the early chronic phase. The same was observed in relation to the presence of intestinal inflammatory infiltrates. In relation to interleukin (IL)-10, there was an increase only in the early chronic phase. The Colombian strain infection was also able to induce neuronal loss in the myenteric plexus and deposition of the collagen fibers during the acute phase. The Colombian strain of T. cruzi is capable of causing histopathological changes in the intestine of infected mice, especially in inducing neuronal destructions. Thus, this strain can also be used to study the intestinal form of Chagas disease in experimental models.

2022 ◽  
Parsa Gholipour ◽  
alireza komaki ◽  
Mahdi Ramezani

Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress and neuronal death are the primary reasons for the progression of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ecdysterone (Ecdy), a common derivative of ecdysteroids, possesses free radical scavenging and cognitive-improving effects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a therapeutic strategy for improving cognitive decline and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of HIIT alone and its combination with Ecdysterone on the changes in learning and memory functions, hippocampal antioxidant enzymes activities, and neuronal population after AD induced by Aβ in male rats.Materials and methods: Following ten days of Aβ-injection, HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment (10 mg/kg/day; P.O.) were initiated and continued for eight consecutive weeks in rats. At the end of the treatment period, rat’s learning and memory functions were assessed using water-maze and passive-avoidance tests. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GRx) and neuronal population were evaluated in rat’s brains.Results: The results indicated that Aβ injection disrupted spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory in both water-maze and passive-avoidance paradigms, accompanied by a decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase (as endogenous antioxidants) in rat hippocampus. Additionally, Aβ injection resulted in neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although consumption of Ecdysterone separately improved spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory impairments, recovered hippocampal activity of SOD, CAT, GRx, GRx and prevented the hippocampal neuronal loss, its combination with HIIT resulted in a more powerful and effective amelioration in all the above-mentioned Aβ-neuropathological changes.Conclusion: The current work's data confirms that a combination of HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment could be a promising potential therapeutic agent against AD-associated cognitive decline, owing to their free radical scavenging and neuroprotective properties.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Tal Ganz ◽  
Nina Fainstein ◽  
Amit Elad ◽  
Marva Lachish ◽  
Smadar Goldfarb ◽  

Abstract Background Neurodegeneration is considered the consequence of misfolded proteins’ deposition. Little is known about external environmental effects on the neurodegenerative process. Infectious agent-derived pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activate microglia, key players in neurodegenerative diseases. We hypothesized that systemic microbial pathogens may accelerate neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and that microglia play a central role in this process. Methods We examined the effect of an infectious environment and of microbial Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists on cortical neuronal loss and on microglial phenotype in wild type versus 5xFAD transgenic mice, carrying mutated genes associated with familial AD. Results We examined the effect of a naturally bred environment on the neurodegenerative process. Earlier and accelerated cortical neuron loss occurred in 5xFAD mice housed in a natural (“dirty”) environment than in a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) environment, without increasing the burden of Amyloid deposits and microgliosis. Neuronal loss occurred in a microglia-rich cortical region but not in microglia-poor CA regions of the hippocampus. Environmental exposure had no effect on cortical neuron density in wild-type mice. To model the neurodegenerative process caused by the natural infectious environment, we injected systemically the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a TLR4 agonist PAMP. LPS caused cortical neuronal death in 5xFAD, but not wt mice. We used the selective retinoic acid receptor α agonist Am580 to regulate microglial activation. In primary microglia isolated from 5xFAD mice, Am580 markedly attenuated TLR agonists-induced iNOS expression, without canceling their basic immune response. Intracerebroventricular delivery of Am580 in 5xFAD mice reduced significantly the fraction of (neurotoxic) iNOS + microglia and increased the fraction of (neuroprotective) TREM2 + microglia. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular delivery of Am580 prevented neurodegeneration induced by microbial TLR agonists. Conclusions Exposure to systemic infections causes neurodegeneration in brain regions displaying amyloid pathology and high local microglia density. AD brains exhibit increased susceptibility to microbial PAMPs’ neurotoxicity, which accelerates neuronal death. Microglial modulation protects the brain from microbial TLR agonist PAMP-induced neurodegeneration.

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