training protocols
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2022 ◽  
Vol 65 (5) ◽  
pp. 101586
Mariana Brondani de Mello ◽  
Natiele Camponogara Righi ◽  
Felipe Barreto Schuch ◽  
Luis Ulisses Signori ◽  
Antônio Marcos Vargas da Silva

2022 ◽  
pp. 101725
Walter Krause Neto ◽  
Wellington de Assis Silva ◽  
Tony Vinicius Apolinário de Oliveira ◽  
Alan Esaú dos Santos Vilas Boas ◽  
Adriano Polican Ciena ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Carlton D. Fox ◽  
Paulo H. C. Mesquita ◽  
Joshua S. Godwin ◽  
Vitor Angleri ◽  
Felipe Damas ◽  

We sought to determine if manipulating resistance training (RT) variables differentially altered the expression of select sarcoplasmic and myofibril proteins as well as myofibrillar spacing in myofibers. Resistance-trained men (n = 20; 26 ± 3 years old) trained for 8 weeks where a randomized leg performed either a standard (CON) or variable RT protocol (VAR: manipulation of load, volume, muscle action, and rest intervals at each RT session). A pre-training (PRE) vastus lateralis biopsy was obtained from a randomized single leg, and biopsies were obtained from both legs 96 h following the last training bout. The sarcoplasmic protein pool was assayed for proteins involved in energy metabolism, and the myofibril protein pool was assayed for relative myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin protein abundances. Sections were also histologically analyzed to obtain myofibril spacing characteristics. VAR resulted in ~12% greater volume load (VL) compared to CON (p < 0.001). The mean fiber cross-sectional area increased following both RT protocols [CON: 14.6% (775.5 μm2), p = 0.006; VAR: 13.9% (743.2 μm2), p = 0.01 vs. PRE for both], but without significant differences between protocols (p = 0.79). Neither RT protocol affected a majority of assayed proteins related to energy metabolism, but both training protocols increased hexokinase 2 protein levels and decreased a mitochondrial beta-oxidation marker (VLCAD protein; p < 0.05). Citrate synthase activity levels increased with CON RT (p < 0.05), but not VAR RT. The relative abundance of MHC (summed isoforms) decreased with both training protocols (p < 0.05). However, the relative abundance of actin protein (summed isoforms) decreased with VAR only (13.5 and 9.0%, respectively; p < 0.05). A decrease in percent area occupied by myofibrils was observed from PRE to VAR (−4.87%; p = 0.048), but not for the CON (4.53%; p = 0.979). In contrast, there was an increase in percent area occupied by non-contractile space from PRE to VAR (10.14%; p = 0.048), but not PRE to CON (0.72%; p = 0.979). In conclusion, while both RT protocols increased muscle fiber hypertrophy, a higher volume-load where RT variables were frequently manipulated increased non-contractile spacing in resistance-trained individuals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mohammad Soltani ◽  
Masoud Jokar Baluchi ◽  
Daniel Boullosa ◽  
Ali Daraei ◽  
Patricia K. Doyle-Baker ◽  

Background: It is well known that exercise training has positive effects on both cardiac autonomic function and arterial stiffness (AS). However, it is not clear that which exercise training variables, intensity or volume, or both, play a crucial role in this regard. This study investigates the chronic effects of high-volume moderate-intensity training (HVMIT) and low-volume high-intensity training (LVHIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) and AS in sedentary adult men.Materials and Methods: Notably, 45 males (age: 42 ± 5.7 years) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 15), HVMIT (n = 15), or LVHIT (n = 15). The HVMIT group ran three times per week on a treadmill at 50–60% of VO2max for 45–60 min, while the LVHIT trained at 70–85% of VO2max for 25–40 min. Both training protocols were equated by caloric expenditure. HRV, pulse wave velocity (PWV), hemodynamic variables, and body composition were measured before and after 12 weeks.Results: Both protocols (i.e., HVMIT and LVHIT) significantly increased the SD of normal sinus beat intervals (SDNN) and high-frequency (HF) bands (p < 0.05) after 12 weeks. Whereas the low-frequency (LF)-HF ratio decreased significantly in both training protocols (p < 0.05); however, these changes were significantly greater in the LVHIT protocol (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the root mean square of successive RR interval differences (RMSSD) significantly increased only in the LVHIT (p < 0.05). Moreover, a significant decrease in LF and PWV was only observed following the LVHIT protocol (p < 0.05). Some measures of HRV and PWV were significantly correlated (r = 0.275–0.559; p < 0.05).Conclusion: These results show that the LVHIT protocol was more efficient for improving HRV variables and PWV than the HVMIT protocol after 12 weeks of continuous running training. Interestingly, changes in some HRV parameters were related to changes in PWV. Further studies should elaborate on the link between central and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations after continuous and intermittent training regimens differing in intensity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Saša Đurić ◽  
Olivera M. Knezevic ◽  
Vedrana Sember ◽  
Ivan Cuk ◽  
Aleksandar Nedeljkovic ◽  

The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance-specific gains in muscle power and strength (1RM) following the training of maximum bench-press throws (BPT) against constant, inertial, and combined resistance. Forty-eight male participants (age 20.5 ± 2.0 years) were randomly assigned to the constant, inertial, combined resistance, or control group. Participants underwent 8 weeks of training of BPT against the loads that corresponded to the different effects of mass of 40 kg (∼50% of 1RM). The gains in average and maximum power, and 1RM were significant in all experimental groups (P < 0.01), but not in the control group (P > 0.1). Relative gains in the average (26.3 ± 9.8%) and maximum power (25.2 ± 9.8%) were larger than that in the 1RM (mean 7.2 ± 6.9%; both P < 0.001). The gains in the average (F4, 66 = 6.0; P < 0.01) and maximum power (F4, 66 = 4.7; P < 0.01) were higher when tested against the training-specific resistance than when tested against the remaining two resistance types. Differences in 1RM among experimental groups were not significant (P = 0.092). The most important and rather novel finding of the study is that the training against the weight and inertial resistance, and their combination results in resistance-specific gains in muscle power, although the overall gains muscle strength and power remain comparable across the training protocols.

2021 ◽  
Vol 37 ◽  
pp. e37058
Jaime Della Corte ◽  
Rogério Alves de Souza ◽  
Jurandir Baptista da Silva ◽  
Eduardo Borba Neves ◽  
João Pedro Bomfim Torres ◽  

This study aimed to analyze the performance of the vertical jump with counter movement (CMJ), in university handball athletes, immediately after the maximum strength training in multiple series and after 10 and 15min of rest. Twelve male athletes participated, age 20.9±2.4 years old, height 1.78±0.05m and Body Mass Index (BMI) 28.74±8.1kg/m2. After the tests and retests of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for the dominant and non-dominant sides, in the leg extension, the volunteers performed crossover after 48 hours of the training sessions. CMJ measurements were collected before and immediately after each training protocol and after 10 and 15min of rest. Passive recovery between sets was three minutes. The intervals between training protocols were at least 45min. There were no statistical differences for the CMJ between the moments pre-, post-training session, 10 and 15min of rest in the different protocols, but progressive increases in the CMJ variables were observed, extending up to the 15th minute of rest, in all training protocols when comparing the results of the means of the CMJ variables of the moments post-training session, 10 and 15min of rest with the averages of the variables from the pre-training session, being more evident in the alternate unilateral protocol, which, unlike the other protocols of the study, performed series with the two lower limbs. It was evidenced that the training protocols of short duration and with high dynamic efforts, previously performed, influenced the performance of the CMJ, favoring for the transient improvement of the explosive muscular strength of the athletes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Ian Burton

Musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinopathy, are placing an increasing burden on society and health systems. Tendinopathy accounts for up to 30% of musculoskeletal disorders, with a high incidence in athletes and the general population. Although resistance training has shown short-term effectiveness in the treatment of lower limb tendinopathy, more comprehensive exercise protocols and progression methods are required due to poor long-term outcomes. The most common resistance training protocols are predetermined and standardized, which presents significant limitations. Current standardized protocols do not adhere to scientific resistance training principles, consider individual factors, or take the importance of individualized training into account. Resistance training programs in case of tendinopathy are currently not achieving the required intensity and dosage, leading to high recurrence rates. Therefore, better methods for individualizing and progressing resistance training are required to improve outcomes. One potential method is autoregulation, which allows individuals to progress training at their own rate, taking individual factors into account. Despite the finding of their effectiveness in increasing the strength of healthy athletes, autoregulation methods have not been investigated in case of tendinopathy. The purpose of this narrative review was 3-fold: firstly, to give an overview and a critical analysis of the individual factors involved in tendinopathy and current resistance training protocols and their limitations. Secondly, to give an overview of the history, methods, and application of autoregulation strategies both in sports performance and physiotherapy. Finally, a theoretical adaptation of a current tendinopathy resistance training protocol using autoregulation methods is presented, providing an example of how the method could be implemented in clinical practice or future research.

2021 ◽  
Vol 53 (8S) ◽  
pp. 26-26
Murat Karabulut ◽  
Ricardo Parra ◽  
Gladys Maestre ◽  
Michael G. Bemben ◽  
Ulku Karabulut

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