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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 830
Pedro Harry-Leite ◽  
Manuel Paquete ◽  
José Teixeira ◽  
Miguel Santos ◽  
José Sousa ◽  

This study aimed to compare the acute effect of a proprioceptive exercise session and a non-specific exercise session on knee position sense, and the static and dynamic balance of athletes. Sixty male athletes (19.4 ± 1.2 years) participated in a within-subjects repeated-measures study. Knee position sense in closed kinetic chain, and static (BESS test) and dynamic balance (Y-balance test) were measured before and after two exercise sessions, consisting of 10 min of non-specific exercise in a cycle-ergometer or proprioceptive exercise with an unstable platform. Overall, both exercise sessions significantly improved knee position sense, BESS score, and YBT composite score, and no differences were detected between proprioceptive and non-specific sessions (knee position sense, −6.9 ± 65.2% vs. −11.5 ± 75.0%, p = 0.680; BESS, −19.3 ± 47.7% vs. −29.03 ± 23.5%, p = 0.121; YBT, 2.6 ± 2.7% vs. 2.2 ± 2.2%, p = 0.305). Twenty athletes did not improve knee position sense after the exercise session (non-responders). When analyzing only the exercise responders, both sessions improved knee position sense, but the improvement was greater after the proprioceptive exercise session (56.4 ± 25.6% vs. 43.8 ± 18.9%, p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single proprioceptive, as well as non-specific, exercise session increased knee position sense and balance. The proprioceptive exercise seems to be more effective in improving joint position sense when considering only athletes who respond to the intervention.

Panagiotis Ferentinos ◽  
Costas Tsakirides ◽  
Michelle Swainson ◽  
Adam Davison ◽  
Marrissa Martyn-St James ◽  

AbstractCirculating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair and their monitoring could have prognostic clinical value. Exercise is often prescribed for the management of cardiometabolic diseases, however, it is not fully understood how it regulates EPCs. Objectives: to systematically examine the acute and chronic effects of different exercise modalities on circulating EPCs in patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease. Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines were followed. Results: six electronic databases and reference lists of eligible studies were searched to April 2021. Thirty-six trials met the inclusion criteria including 1731 participants. Acute trials: in chronic heart failure (CHF), EPC mobilisation was acutely increased after high intensity interval or moderate intensity continuous exercise training, while findings were inconclusive after a cardiopulmonary cycling exercise test. Maximal exercise tests acutely increased EPCs in ischaemic or revascularized coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. In peripheral arterial disease (PAD), EPC levels increased up to 24 h post-exercise. In patients with compromised metabolic health, EPC mobilisation was blunted after a single exercise session. Chronic trials: in CHF and acute coronary syndrome, moderate intensity continuous protocols, with or without resistance exercise or calisthenics, increased EPCs irrespective of EPC identification phenotype. Findings were equivocal in CAD regardless of exercise mode, while in severe PAD disease EPCs increased. High intensity interval training increased EPCs in hypertensive metabolic syndrome and heart failure reduced ejection fraction. Conclusion: the clinical condition and exercise modality influence the degree of EPC mobilisation and magnitude of EPC increases in the long term. Graphical abstract 

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Shuaipan Zhang ◽  
Guangxin Guo ◽  
Xing Li ◽  
Fei Yao ◽  
Zhiwei Wu ◽  

Background: Although traditional Chinese Yijinjing Qigong Exercise (YJJQE) is popularly used in China, to alleviate symptoms of people with knee osteoarthritis (KOA), no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are available to evaluate the effects of YJJQE in patients with KOA. The purpose of this trial is to assess the clinical efficacy of YJJQE for patients with KOA.Methods: A total of 50 participants clinically diagnosed with KOA are randomly (1:1) assigned to the YJJQE group (n = 25) and to the stretching training exercise (STE) group (n = 25), for a 40-min exercise session twice a week for 12 weeks. All outcome measures are collected at baseline and at 12-week ending intervention, which includes the primary outcomes of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index Scale (WOMAC), the secondary outcomes of visual analog scale (VAS), mental component summary (MCS), physical component summary (PCS), Beck depression inventory (BDI), perceived stress scale (PSS), Berg balance scale (BBS), and the Gait functional mobility data.Results: The YJJQE group did not have any significant changes compared to the control group on the WOMAC score after the 12-week intervention (P > 0.05), though the YJJQE group demonstrated better performance in MCS, BDI, and PSS (P = 0.002, P = 0.001, and P = 0.026, respectively) than the control group. No serious adverse events occurred in either group, and only mild muscle soreness was reported during both exercise treatments.Conclusion: Because no difference between both groups was shown, with regards to the primary outcome measurement (WOMAC), it can hardly explain that the YJJQE had an advantageous effect on patients experiencing the pain and dysfunction of knee osteoarthritis. However, compared to the control group, YJJQE appeared to be associated with improvements in psychological well-being including reduced stress, anxiety, depression, and mood disturbance to manage KOA. Further trials with larger sample sizes and follow-up studies will be required.Clinical Trial Registration:https://www.chictr.org.cn/edit.aspx?pid=60357&htm=4, ChiCTR2000037256.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 2-20
Luis C. O. Gonçalves ◽  
Douglas D. C. Santiago ◽  
Anibal M. M. Neto ◽  
Hugo da Silva Paulino Ferreira ◽  
Marcio V. A. Verli ◽  

To identify the acute hematological and biochemical changes induced by a Crossfit™ class, ten men were divided into CF group (N = 5) and control group (N = 5). Blood and urine were collected: pre-exercise (T1), after exercise (T2), and 12 post-exercise (T3). Blood cells, urea, cortisol, lactate, creatine Kinase (CK), and microalbuminuria (MAU) had measured. There was a record of handgrip strength (HGS), heart rate (HR), and systolic blood pressure (SBP), with the calculation of the double product (DP). MAU showed an increase in the order of 14,000%, with a return to normal (T3). The DP increased 83% in response to exercise, and this increase seems to be due to HR, which increased 76%. Cortisol and lactate showed an acute increase induced by the method, 47% for cortisol and 874% for lactate, respectively, with recovery less than 12 hours. The correlations between the study variables represent a future perspective for studies in sports medicine. The acute excretion of proteins by the kidneys in an acute way, already in the first exercise session, can in the long-term cause damage to this organ. MAU presented itself as more indicated than urea, the most usual renal marker.   Para identificar as alterações hematológicas e bioquímicas agudas induzidas por uma aula Crossfit™, dez homens foram divididos em grupo CF (N = 5) e grupo controle (N = 5). Foram coletados sangue e urina: pré-exercício (T1), pós-exercício (T2) e 12 pós-exercício (T3). Células sanguíneas, uréia, cortisol, lactato, creatina quinase (CK) e microalbuminúria (MAU) foram medidos. Houve registro da força de preensão manual (FPM), frequência cardíaca (FC) e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS), com o cálculo do duplo produto (DP). A MAU apresentou aumento da ordem de 14.000%, com retorno ao normal (T3). O DP aumentou 83% em resposta ao exercício, e esse aumento parece ser devido à FC, que aumentou 76%. O cortisol e o lactato apresentaram aumento agudo induzido pelo método, 47% para o cortisol e 874% para o lactato, respectivamente, com recuperação inferior a 12 horas. As correlações entre as variáveis ​​de estudo representam uma perspectiva futura para os estudos em medicina do esporte. A excreção aguda de proteínas pelos rins de forma aguda, já na primeira sessão de exercícios, pode, a longo prazo, causar danos a esse órgão. O MAU apresentou-se mais indicado que a ureia, o marcador renal mais usual.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Simon Hansen ◽  
Kristian Kjær Petersen ◽  
Emilie Sloth ◽  
Line Appelon Manum ◽  
Anita Kjær McDonald ◽  

Abstract Objectives Exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) is a decrease in the pain sensitivity after exercise. Individuals with chronic pain show less EIH after one exercise session compared with pain-free individuals possibly due to pain in exercising muscles. The primary aim of this randomized controlled cross-over study was to compare the EIH response at the exercising thigh muscle following exercises performed with painful vs. non-painful muscles. Secondary aims were to explore if a reduced EIH response was confined to the painful muscle, and whether the muscle pain intensity and the EIH responses were negatively associated. Methods In two sessions, 34 pain-free participants received a painful (hypertonic saline, 5.8%) injection and a control (isotonic saline, 0.9%) injection in the right thigh muscle before performing a 3 min isometric wall squat exercise. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at both thighs and the left neck/shoulder at baseline, after injections and after exercise. Pain intensities in the thighs were rated on numerical rating scales (NRS: 0–10). Results Hypertonic saline induced moderate thigh pain at rest (NRS: 4.6 ± 2.1) compared to the control injection (NRS: 0.3 ± 0.4; p<0.001). EIH at the thighs and neck/shoulder were not different between sessions (Injected thigh: 0 kPa; 95% CI: −51 to 52; Contralateral thigh: −6 kPa; 95% CI: −42 to 30; neck/shoulder: 19 kPa; 95% CI: −6 to 44). No significant associations between pain intensity ratings immediately after the Painful injection and EIH responses at any assessment sites were found (right thigh: β=0.08, 95% CI: −12.95 to 20.64, p=0.64, left thigh: β=−0.33, 95% CI: −27.86 to 0.44, p=0.06; neck/shoulder: β=−0.18, 95% CI: −15.11 to 4.96, p=0.31). Conclusions Pain in the area of an exercising muscle did not reduce local or systemic EIH responses. Trial registration number NCT04354948.

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Majid Gholipour ◽  
Soheyla Mazaheri

Background: Muscle loss occurs in some conditions such as aging, sarcopenia, and cancer. The interaction between protein synthesis and degradation signaling components induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is not well studied. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to simultaneously examine the effect of eight-week HIIT on the gene expression of both signaling components. Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to HIIT and non-exercise control groups. The HIIT group ran on a treadmill, five days/week for eight weeks, with 0º slope, including five interval sets of high and low intensity. Forty-eight hours after the last exercise session, dissected soleus muscles were stored at -80°C for later analyses. Results: The gene expression of Akt1, mTORC1, and S6K1 were increased in the HIIT group compared with the control group (All P ≤ 0.031) concomitant with the suppression of eIF4EBP1. The results of the S6K1 and eIF4EBP1 mRNA were also confirmed by the Western blotting. According to the inhibitory effect of Akt1, the gene expressions of FoxO3a and, consequently, MuRF1 and LC3A were significantly inhibited (All P ≤ 0.003). Western blot analysis did not confirm the LC3A protein expression, which may underline the role of LC3A in autophagy to promote cell survival. Conclusions: The intensities and durations of the exercise training protocol are sufficient to increase protein synthesis signaling components and especially inhibit the atrophy-related gene expression, which may lead to attenuating muscle loss and increasing muscle mass. Accordingly, it may be considered for rehabilitation and/or prevention of some conditions such as sarcopenia and cachexia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
P. S. Swathi ◽  
Raghavendra Bhat ◽  
Apar Avinash Saoji

Background and Objective: Attention and memory are essential aspects of cognitive health. Yogasanas, pranayama, and meditation have shown to improve cognitive functions. There has been no assessment of Trataka (yogic visual concentration) on working or on spatial memory. The present study was planned to assess the immediate effects of Trataka and of eye exercise sessions on the Corsi-block tapping task (CBTT).Methods: A total of 41 healthy volunteers of both genders with age 23.21 ± 2.81 years were recruited. All participants underwent baseline assessment, followed by 2 weeks of training in Trataka (including eye exercise). Each training session lasted for 20 min/day for 6 days a week. After completion of the training period, a 1-week washout period was given. Each participant then was assessed in two sessions in Trataka and in eye exercise on two separate days, maintaining the same time of the day. Repeated measure analysis of variance with Holm’s adjustment was performed to check the difference between the sessions.Results: Significant within-subjects effects were observed for forward Corsi span andforward total score (p &lt; 0.001), and also for backward Corsi span (p &lt; 0.05) and backward total score (p &lt; 0.05). Post hoc analyses revealed Trataka session to be better than eye exercises and baseline. The eye exercise session did not show any significant changes in the CBTT.Conclusion: The result suggests that Trataka session improves working memory, spatial memory, and spatial attention.

Janhavi Mahajan ◽  
Dhruv Talwar ◽  
Sunil Kumar ◽  
Sourya Acharya ◽  
Yogesh Kakde

ECAST Or exercise collapse associated with sickle cell trait is a rare phenomenon associated with sickle cell trait and is an important presentation of sickle cell disease in sports medicine. Collapse is seen following vigorous physical activity, which is due to excessive heat, dehydration and other factors associated with physical exercise. This rare syndrome is often missed by the treating physicians as a result of a lack of knowledge about this rare entity leading to massive underreporting. It is important to identify ECAST as a cause of the collapse in young athletes to prevent mortality and morbidity and in order to provide prompt treatment. We report a case of a 25- year-old young male who was a bodybuilder and reported to the gym after a one-year-long break due to lockdown restrictions of COVID19. After a vigorous exercise session, he collapsed in the gym and was brought to the emergency department. After proper history taking and examination, he was suspected to be a case of ECAST due to a history of a similar episode three years back which was treated as a case of exertional syncope with intravenous fluid therapy and a family history of Sickle cell trait with his mother and father both having sickle cell AS Pattern. Ultimately our patient turned out to be a case of Sickle Cell Trait with evidence of AS pattern on Hb electrophoresis and a small-sized spleen visualized on CT Scan of the abdomen. The patient was managed successfully with intravenous fluids and blood transfusion and was discharged in a stable condition. He was counseled about moderating his exercise and is doing well on follow-up.

Yucheon Kim ◽  
Songyi Lee

This study is the first to conduct a comprehensive investigation of the effects of physical exercise on South Korean women with disabilities using the data of previous studies. This study performed a meta-analysis of the effect sizes of exercise programs for women with disabilities using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.0 and a total of 16 papers with 154 participants. The largest effect sizes were found for changes in muscle strength (d = 2.407) for treatment effects, horseback riding (d = 3.080) for exercise type, 45–50 min (d = 3.080) for duration of a single exercise session, three times (d = 0.963) for frequency of exercise per week, 15 weeks (d = 1.974) for period of exercise and 45 times (d = 1.974) for total number of sessions. The results of this meta-analysis showed that exercise programs suitable for the individual-level characteristics of disabled individuals can and should be developed and implemented.

Michal Nissim ◽  
Abigail Livny ◽  
Caroline Barmatz ◽  
Galia Tsarfaty ◽  
Yitshal Berner ◽  

Background: Normal aging is associated with balance and working memory decline. From a neurobiological standpoint, changes in cerebellar functional plasticity may mediate the decline in balance and working memory for older adults. Mounting evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for decreasing aging effects. Previous studies have focused on land-based physical activity and research concerning the aquatic environment is scarce. This study investigated the effectiveness of Ai-Chi on balance abilities and cerebral activation during a high working memory load task among community-dwelling older people. Methods: A total of 19 people aged 65–86 years were allocated to receive Ai-Chi practice (n = 6), structured on-land Ai-Chi practice (n = 7) or guided-imagery of Ai-Chi practice (n = 6) for a bi-weekly, 30-min exercise session for 12 weeks. Balance was measured by the Tinetti balance sub-test and working memory was measured by the N-back test during functional-MRI scan. Results: The Ai-Chi practice group presented a significant change in balance between pre and post intervention (balance t = −4.8, p < 0.01). In the whole-brain analysis, during high working memory load task, the Ai-Chi practice group presented a decrease in left cerebellar activation. Region of interest analyses yielded similar results by which pre-cerebellar activation was higher than post-intervention (t = 2.77, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Ai-Chi is an available, non-invasive intervention method that may serve as a tool to improve cerebellar activation that in turn might improve balance. In addition, our findings may provide new insights into the neuronal mechanisms that underlie both motor and cognitive abilities.

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