Free Radical Scavenging
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Wei-Hsun Wang ◽  
Wei-Lin Li ◽  
Cheng-You Chen ◽  
Min-Yun Chang ◽  
Shu-Ling Huang ◽  

Abstract Background Chenopodium formosanum (CF) provides the human body with numerous nutritional components. This study used the two-phase system to identify an efficient method to obtain CF extracts. CF extraction was performed using an ethanol–ammonium sulfate two-phase system. The efficacy of different CF extracts with five types of antioxidant ability was tested and compared with traditional aqueous and alcohol extractions. Results The results showed that a separated top of the two-phase system extract had higher total phenol content (120.35 ± 5.80 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract), total flavonoid content (447.06 ± 16.57 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry extract) and reducing ability (284.48 ± 4.60 mg vitamin C equivalent/g dry extract) than those of other extracts. Furthermore, the separated top of the two-phase system extract and the top of the two-phase system extract had higher 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging ability and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) free radical scavenging ability than those of the water extract, alcohol extract, bottom of two-phase system extract, and separated bottom of two-phase system extract. Conclusions The results indicate that CF has great potential for use in natural plant health supplements and skin care products and that the two-phase extraction system can yield an effective CF extract. Graphical Abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 192-199
Mahesh Kumar D

Background: Silver Nanoparticles are drawing significant attention from the scientific community to explore a wide range of its medical applications. Human body is under constant stress due to free radicals generated by the physiological and pathological conditions in the body. Scavenging systems or Antioxidants can help alleviate the damages caused by these radicals which can influence the course of progress in several chronic diseases with an inflammatory background. External antioxidants supplement and facilitate the overwhelmed scavenging systems in the body.Silver Nanoparticles can enhance the therapeutic effects of phytochemicals. Aim: To Synthesize silver nanoparticles using the phytochemical Hesperidin and studying its Free radical scavenging activity. Methods: Silver Nanoparticles are synthesized using chemical reduction method. The synthesis is confirmed using spectrophotometric studies. Free Radical scavenging activity is detected using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH •) free radical scavenging assay. Results: Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized which was confirmed by the change in color of the solution and peak absorbance peak at 420 nM on spectrophotometric studies.Hesperidin Silver Nanoparticles exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity when compared with pure hesperidin and standard Ascorbic acid. Conclusion: Hesperidin can ideally be used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the synthesized Silver Nanoparticles enhances the free radical scavenging activity of Hesperidin which can further be evaluated by In Vivo studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-07
Mohammad Azizur Rahman ◽  
Tawhidur Rahman ◽  
Moshiur Rahman ◽  
Mirza Arif

The present article reviews the history of mushroom uses in culinary, food and medicinal values; current status and future aspect of mushroom research. Mushrooms contain biologically active polysaccharides, lipid and proteins in fruit bodies, each of them has a distinct role in health as either nutritional value or medicinal elements. Immunostimulating polysaccharides found in mushrooms, are most important for modern medicine. Several of the mushroom biomolecules have undergone phase I, II, and III clinical trials and are used extensively and successfully throughout the world for the treatment of various cancers and other diseases. Medicinal functions played by the mushrooms include antitumor, antibacterial, antioxidant, antiparasitic, antidiabetic, detoxification, cardiovascular, antihypercholesterolemia, antiviral, antifungal, hepatoprotective, immunomodulating and free radical scavenging. The present review draws attention to nutritional and medicinal importance of mushroom as well as the problems and opportunity in the future development of mushroom research.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 476
Wei-Chieh Huang ◽  
Shaw-Min Hou ◽  
Ming-Ping Wu ◽  
Chih-Wei Hsia ◽  
Thanasekaran Jayakumar ◽  

Platelets play a critical role in arterial thrombosis. Rutaecarpine (RUT) was purified from Tetradium ruticarpum, a well-known Chinese medicine. This study examined the relative activity of RUT with NF-κB inhibitors in human platelets. BAY11-7082 (an inhibitor of IκB kinase [IKK]), Ro106-9920 (an inhibitor of proteasomes), and RUT concentration-dependently (1–6 μM) inhibited platelet aggregation and P-selectin expression. RUT was found to have a similar effect to that of BAY11-7082; however, it exhibits more effectiveness than Ro106-9920. RUT suppresses the NF-κB pathway as it inhibits IKK, IκBα, and p65 phosphorylation and reverses IκBα degradation in activated platelets. This study also investigated the role of p38 and NF-κB in cell signaling events and found that SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38) markedly reduced p38, IKK, and p65 phosphorylation and reversed IκBα degradation as well as p65 activation in a confocal microscope, whereas BAY11-7082 had no effects in p38 phosphorylation. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay shows that RUT and BAY11-7082 did not exhibit free radical scavenging activity. In the in vivo study, compared with BAY11-7082, RUT more effectively reduced mortality in adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced acute pulmonary thromboembolism without affecting the bleeding time. In conclusion, a distinctive pathway of p38-mediated NF-κB activation may involve RUT-mediated antiplatelet activation, and RUT could act as a strong prophylactic or therapeutic drug for cardiovascular diseases.

2022 ◽  
Parsa Gholipour ◽  
alireza komaki ◽  
Mahdi Ramezani

Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress and neuronal death are the primary reasons for the progression of amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ecdysterone (Ecdy), a common derivative of ecdysteroids, possesses free radical scavenging and cognitive-improving effects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a therapeutic strategy for improving cognitive decline and oxidative stress. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of HIIT alone and its combination with Ecdysterone on the changes in learning and memory functions, hippocampal antioxidant enzymes activities, and neuronal population after AD induced by Aβ in male rats.Materials and methods: Following ten days of Aβ-injection, HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment (10 mg/kg/day; P.O.) were initiated and continued for eight consecutive weeks in rats. At the end of the treatment period, rat’s learning and memory functions were assessed using water-maze and passive-avoidance tests. Moreover, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione Reductase (GRx) and neuronal population were evaluated in rat’s brains.Results: The results indicated that Aβ injection disrupted spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory in both water-maze and passive-avoidance paradigms, accompanied by a decrease in the superoxide dismutase and catalase (as endogenous antioxidants) in rat hippocampus. Additionally, Aβ injection resulted in neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although consumption of Ecdysterone separately improved spatial/passive avoidance learning and memory impairments, recovered hippocampal activity of SOD, CAT, GRx, GRx and prevented the hippocampal neuronal loss, its combination with HIIT resulted in a more powerful and effective amelioration in all the above-mentioned Aβ-neuropathological changes.Conclusion: The current work's data confirms that a combination of HIIT exercise and Ecdysterone treatment could be a promising potential therapeutic agent against AD-associated cognitive decline, owing to their free radical scavenging and neuroprotective properties.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Martina Čagalj ◽  
Danijela Skroza ◽  
María del Carmen Razola-Díaz ◽  
Vito Verardo ◽  
Daniela Bassi ◽  

The underexplored biodiversity of seaweeds has recently drawn great attention from researchers to find the bioactive compounds that might contribute to the growth of the blue economy. In this study, we aimed to explore the effect of seasonal growth (from May to September) on the in vitro antioxidant (FRAP, DPPH, and ORAC) and antimicrobial effects (MIC and MBC) of Cystoseira compressa collected in the Central Adriatic Sea. Algal compounds were analyzed by UPLC-PDA-ESI-QTOF, and TPC and TTC were determined. Fatty acids, among which oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and palmitic acid were the dominant compounds in samples. The highest TPC, TTC and FRAP were obtained for June extract, 83.4 ± 4.0 mg GAE/g, 8.8 ± 0.8 mg CE/g and 2.7 ± 0.1 mM TE, respectively. The highest ORAC value of 72.1 ± 1.2 µM TE was obtained for the August samples, and all samples showed extremely high free radical scavenging activity and DPPH inhibition (>80%). The MIC and MBC results showed the best antibacterial activity for the June, July and August samples, when sea temperature was the highest, against Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enteritidis. The results show C. compressa as a potential species for the industrial production of nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients.

Ghassan Mohammad Sulaiman ◽  
Hanaa M. Waheeba ◽  
Hanady AL-Shmgani ◽  
Hamsa A. Eassa ◽  
Ahmed A. Al-Amiery ◽  

The flavonoglycone hesperidin is recognized as a potent anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antioxidant agent. However, its poor bioavailability is a crucial bottleneck regarding its therapeutic activity. Gold nanoparticles are widely used in drug delivery because of its unique properties that differ from bulk metal. Hesperidin loaded gold nanoparticles were successfully prepared to enhance its stability and bioactive potential, as well as to minimize the problems associated with its absorption. The free radical scavenging activities of hesperidin, gold nanoparticles, and hesperidin loaded gold nanoparticles were compared with that of Vitamin C and subsequently evaluated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The antioxidant pharmacophore-based structure-activity relationship analysis was assessed by the density functional theory as well as quantum chemical calculations. Moreover, the structural properties were utilized using Becke’s three-parameter hybrid exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr’s correction of functional approaches. Hesperidin-loaded gold nanoparticles were found to decrease hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and thus induce Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) instability. In addition, hesperidin-gold nanoparticles were observed to display important antioxidant potential as well as ameliorate the functional activity of macrophages against Escherichia coli, possibly protecting DNA. These particles might be appropriate for clinical trials and could prove useful for the treatment of various life-threatening disorders.

2022 ◽  
Sania Naz ◽  
Anila Sajjad ◽  
Joham Ali ◽  

Comparative nutritional analysis of citrus varieties cultivated in Pakistan has not been reported. Citrus is consumed all over the world due to its taste and also has pharmacological components. The present investigation evaluated the antioxidant, reducing power, total flavonoids and phenolics, DPPH free radical scavenging, protein kinase inhibition, and the antimicrobial activities of eight Pakistani citrus varieties. Grapefruit showed maximum total antioxidant potential (77 µg AAE/100 mg), followed by Kinnow and Shakri. Khatai showed maximum reducing power potential (69.6 µg AAE/100 mg) while Shakri and Grapefruit trailed it. All the varieties showed significant DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Maximum total phenolics in citrus juice were found in Shakri and Kinnow; 26.2 and 25.9 µg GAE/100mg, respectively. Variation in total flavonoids content was observed as Kinnow>Grapefruit>Shakri>Khatai. All the citrus juices showed mild to moderate antibacterial activity, while Mosambi and Malta contained potent antifungal components. HPLC analysis of citrus juices revealed that catechin was present in all citrus genotypes except Kinnow. The study concludes that citrus juices contain strong antioxidative potential, bear protein kinase inhibitors and can be used as cancer chemoprevention and supportive nutrition.

2022 ◽  
Paulo Cumbane ◽  
Abrão Estivila ◽  
Isabel Magaia

Reactive species, such as the free radicals produced during cell metabolism, are described as the main cause of oxidative stress, a process responsible for the development of degenerative diseases. Thus, the investigation of natural products containing chemical components with antioxidant capacity becomes necessary, since the frequent ingestion of these products may prevent the occurrence of this adverse event. In this perspective, total phenols (<b>TPC</b>) and total flavonoids (<b>TFC</b>) of the crude methanolic extract (<b>MCE</b>) and ethyl acetate fraction (<b>EAF</b>) obtained from <i>Gladiolus dalenii</i> bulbs were quantified and their antioxidant capacity evaluated and compared with that of gallic acid (<b>GA</b>), tannic acid (<b>TA</b>), pyrogallol (<b>PyG</b>), n-propyl gallate (<b>nPG</b>), quercetin (<b>Qtn</b>), rutin (<b>Rut</b>), butylated hydroxytoluene (<b>BHT</b>), 6-hydroxy-2,5,7-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid (<b>Trolox</b>) and ascorbic acid (<b>Asc)</b> using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method. The study revealed that the antioxidant activity of <b>MCE</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=6.550 ± 0.31 µg/mL) and <b>EAF</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=5.960 ± 0.61 µg/mL) was higher effect than <b>Rut</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=9.110 ± 0.04 µg/mL) and <b>BHT</b> (EC<sub>50</sub>=11.18 ± 0.03 µg/mL), and in turn lower than that of the other substances analyzed. The antioxidant activity found for <i>G. dalenii</i> extracts may be due to the high level of TPC found in this species.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 123
Yen-Tung Lee ◽  
Yu-Li Chen ◽  
Yi-Hsuan Wu ◽  
Ih-Sheng Chen ◽  
Hsun-Shuo Chang ◽  

The pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is very complex. Patients with ARDS still suffer high mortality rates. Infiltration and activation of neutrophils in lungs are critical pathogenic factors in ARDS. In this study, we demonstrate that meso-dihydroguaiaretic acid (MDGA), a natural lignan, inhibits inflammatory responses in human neutrophils and ameliorates ARDS in mice. MDGA inhibited superoxide anion generation and elastase release in various G-protein coupled receptor agonists-induced human neutrophils. However, MDGA did not alter superoxide anion generation and elastase activity in cell-free systems. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of MDGA are mediated by regulating cellular signals in human neutrophils. In consistent with this, MDGA suppressed phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase in activated human neutrophils. Moreover, MDGA inhibited CD11b expression and adhesion in activated human neutrophils. Interestingly, MDGA reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but not superoxide anion generation in protein kinase C (PKC) activator-induced human neutrophils, suggesting that MDGA may also have ROS scavenging ability. Indeed, MDGA showed strong free radical scavenging activity in cell-free assays. Significantly, MDGA suppressed PKC-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Additionally, treatment of MDGA attenuated neutrophil infiltration and lung damage on lipopolysaccharide-induced ARDS in mice. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that MDGA has anti-neutrophilic inflammatory effects and free-radical scavenging activity. We also suggest that MDGA has potential to serve as a lead for developing new therapeutics to treat ARDS.

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