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HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 239-246
Krishna Nemali

Modern greenhouses are intensive farming systems designed to achieve high efficiency and productivity. Plants are produced year-round in greenhouses by maintaining the environment at or near optimum levels regardless of extreme weather conditions. Many scientific discoveries and technological advancements that happened in the past two centuries paved the way for current state-of-the-art greenhouses. These include, but are not limited to, advancements in climate-specific structural designs and glazing materials, and temperature control, artificial lighting, and hydroponic production systems. Greenhouse structures can be broadly grouped into four distinct designs, including tall Venlo greenhouses of the Netherlands, passive solar greenhouses of China, low-cost Parral greenhouses of the Mediterranean region, and gutter-connected polyethylene houses of India and African countries. These designs were developed to suit local climatic conditions and maximize the return on investment. Although glass and rigid plastic options are available for glazing, the development of low-cost and lightweight plastic glazing materials (e.g., polyethylene) enabled widespread growth of the greenhouse industry in the developing world. For temperate regions, supplemental lighting technology is crucial for year-round production. This heavily relies on advancements in electro-lighting during the 19th and 20th centuries. The development of hydroponic production systems for the controlled delivery of nutrients further enhanced crop productivity. This article addresses important historical events, scientific discoveries, and technological improvements related to advancements in these areas.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-011
Yete Pélagie ◽  
Togbe FC Alexis ◽  
Yovo Franck ◽  
Suanon Fidèle ◽  
Sidohounde Assou ◽  

Natural minerals are a powerful tool in politics when some have a major role in production. Its depletion is now a hot topic worldwide. Thus, the safety of the environment, natural surface water, groundwater and the protection of soils from chronic contamination by metallic and inorganic elements is a global concern. Indeed, industrialization and development have led to the generation of huge and varied amounts of waste, including electronic waste (e-waste), which is released into the environment. Although e-waste is classified as hazardous, most of it is not recycled and developed countries with strict environmental protection legislation send most of their e-waste to developing countries where regulations are lax. These electronic devices and components after being used are simply dumped into the environment due to lack of treatment and recycling strategy. As a result, they become a threat to the environment, ecosystems and humans. African countries are among the most vulnerable nations. But they are unfortunately ignored and underestimated. To date, there is no e-waste recycling unit (factory) in most African countries and mainly in the Republic of Benin. In response to this challenge, this study explored the different techniques used for the recycling of waste electrical/electronic equipment in order to develop a new environmentally friendly approach in future work, for the extraction and recycling of the usual and valuable metallic elements contained in electronic waste (printed circuit boards) released into the environment. For this purpose, a bibliographic research was carried out from 20 April to 16 October 2021. The results obtained allowed us to identify the advantages and disadvantages of existing recycling methods.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Amsalu Bedemo Beyene

PurposeThe main objective of this article is to analyze the role of governance quality in influencing the economic growth of 22 selected Sub-Saharan African Countries.Design/methodology/approachThe study applied the panel dynamic Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) to analyze the data obtained from the World Bank database over the period from 2002 to 2020.FindingsThe overall finding indicated that the composite governance index has a positive significant effect on the economic growth of the countries; where a unit improvement in the aggregate governance index leads to a 3.05% increase in GDP. The disaggregated result has shown that corruption control and government effectiveness have a negative significant effect on growth performance, whereas, the rule of law and regulatory quality showed a positive significant effect. Political stability and voice and accountability have an insignificant effect on economic growth.Research limitations/implicationsDue to data limitations, this study could not address the whole members of Sub Sahara African Countries and could not see the causal relationship.Practical implicationsThe study suggested a strong commitment to the implementation of policy and reform measures on all governance factors. This may add to the need to devise participatory corruption control mechanisms; to closely look at the proper implementation of policies and reforms that constitute the government effectiveness factors, and properly implement the rule of law at all levels of the government with a strong commitment to realizing it so that citizens at all levels can have full confidence in and abide by the rules of society.Originality/valueEven though there are some studies conducted using conventional methods of panel data analysis such as random effect or fixed effects, this empirical study used more advanced panel dynamic generalized moment of methods to examine the role of improvement in governance quality on economic growth.

MEST Journal ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 72-81
Marek Stych ◽  
Beata Pawlica ◽  
Malgorzata Kmak

This article tackles the issue of aid for African states. Africa is one of the poorest continents, with many people living on the verge of poverty and suffering from malnutrition or famine. Hence, the humanitarian aid provided to the people of this continent is of particular importance. In Poland, such aid activities undertake entities defined in the Polish legal system as non-governmental organizations (NGOs). NGOs also conduct many other kinds of activities. The Act on public benefit and volunteer work is an example of creating legal mechanisms for the functioning of civil society in the legal system to provide international aid to those it needs. Assisting other societies is important for modern civil society the same as political or economic cooperations are. The role of NGOs operating in health protection, education, or entrepreneurship areas is crucially important. The authors of this paper discuss the issue of the said aid provided by selected Polish NGOs. The article aims to determine the extent and scope of the assistance to African countries provided by the NGOs, based on the respondents' experiences, whether such assistance is necessary, and what form it should take.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Sabri Selcuk Atamanalp ◽  
Esra Disci ◽  
Rifat Peksoz ◽  
Refik Selim Atamanalp ◽  
Cansu Tatar Atamanalp

Objectives: Ileosigmoid knotting (ISK) is a rare intestinal obstruction form worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate changing trends in ISK. Methods: The Web of Science and PubMed databases were electronically searched to find all publications to evaluate all epidemiological, etiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological, therapeutic, and prognostic factors in ISK. Results: Most of the cases were reported from Asian and African countries. Mean age was 43.9 years with a 79.9%/20.1% of male/female ratio. Main symptom period was 48.1 hours, while the most common clinical features were abdominal pain/tenderness (99.1%), distention (88.3%), and obstipation/constipation (58.8%). Abdominal X-ray radiography, computerized tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were diagnostic in 8.2%, 96.2%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the total diagnostic accuracy rate was 20.8%. Bowels were gangrenous in 85.6% of the patients. Ileum resection was applied in 14.0% of the cases, while sigmoid colon resection in 7.6%, and both segment resection in 67.1%. The mortality rate was 22.7%, while the morbidity rate was also 22.7%. Conclusion: ISK is a rare disease, but it is still catastrophic despite its two-century recognised past. As an exception, diagnostic convenience arising from CT or MRI looks like the most important change over the last half-century. doi: How to cite this:Atamanalp SS, Disci E, Peksoz R, Atamanalp RS, Tatar Atamanalp C. Ileosigmoid knotting: A review of 923 cases. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Novuyo Nkomo

Significantly, many people with disabilities are victims of classification over generalizations with the assumption that disability is equal to inability. This study focused on challenges faced by children with disabilities in accessing Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) services in Manzini Region of Eswatini. Anchored on the Critical Disability Theory which views disability as a cultural, historical, relative, social, and political phenomenon, the study assessed and analysed the disability issues on the accessibility to ECCD services for young children. Through interviews, data was collected from10 ECCD centres in Manzini which were purposively selected. Ten ECCD teachers, 5 principals, and 5 parents/caregivers participated in the study. The results revealed that failure by these children to access ECCD services in the community impacts negatively on their holistic development. Sadly, young children living with a disability in Eswatini face significant challenges, one of the reasons, just like most of our African countries, being that those who have some form of disability were bewitched or inflicted by some bad spirits. ECCD specialist educators highlighted the need for comprehensive training services that will help them cater to children with special needs. The study recommended for extensive awareness programmes to sensitize communities on the rights of the child, regardless of body, mental or sensory condition.


This paper aims to investigate structural convergence in selected African countries over the period 1994-2019. Using panel data for 48 African countries and several estimation methods [Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE), Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS), tobit model, instrumental variable, and Granger non-causality], the results show the existence of the phenomenon of sectoral structural convergence in Africa, i.e. a greater similarity in sectoral structures while income gaps are narrowing. The paper also highlights the service sector's low relative productivity level and industrial sector's low labor force attractiveness despite a significant shift in labor from the agricultural sector and a higher level of relative productivity respectively. To address this issue, the development and acquisition of human and physical capital would be necessary to develop the industrial sector and increase the service sector's productivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Carolina V. N. Coll ◽  
Thiago M. Santos ◽  
Andrea Wendt ◽  
Franciele Hellwig ◽  
Fernanda Ewerling ◽  

Background: Women’s empowerment may play a role in shaping attitudes towards female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) practices. We aimed to investigate how empowerment may affect women’s intention to perpetuate FGM/C and the practice of FGM/C on their daughters in African countries.Materials and methods: We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys carried out from 2010 to 2018. The countries included in our study were Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Côte d´Ivoire, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, and Togo. This study included 77,191 women aged 15–49 years with at least one daughter between zero and 14 years of age. The proportion of women who reported having at least one daughter who had undergone FGM/C as well as the mother’s opinion towards FGM/C continuation were stratified by empowerment levels in three different domains (decision-making, attitude to violence, and social independence) for each country. We also performed double stratification to investigate how the interaction between both indicators would affect daughter’s FGM/C.Results: The prevalence of women who had at least one daughter who had undergone FGM/C was consistently higher among low empowered women. Tanzania, Benin, and Togo were exceptions for which no differences in having at least one daughter subjected to FGM/C was found for any of the three domains of women’s empowerment. In most countries, the double stratification pointed to a lower proportion of daughters’ FGM/C among women who reported being opposed to the continuation of FGM/C and had a high empowerment level while a higher proportion was observed among women who reported being in favor of the continuation of FGM/C and had a low empowerment level. This pattern was particularly evident for the social independence domain of empowerment. In a few countries, however, a higher empowerment level coupled to a favorable opinion towards FGM/C was related to a higher proportion of daughters’ FGM/C.Conclusion: Women’s empowerment and opinion towards FGM/C seems to be important factors related to the practice of FGM/C in daughters. Strategies to improve women’s empowerment combined with shifts in the wider norms that support FGM/C may be important for achieving significant reductions in the practice.

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