sexually transmitted
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Luca Cegolon ◽  
Melania Bortolotto ◽  
Saverio Bellizzi ◽  
Andrea Cegolon ◽  
Luciano Bubbico ◽  

Background. The peak of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among adolescents/young adults suggests a low level of prevention. In order to assess whether the level of sexual health education (SHE), received by several channels, was effective at improving sexual behaviors, we conducted a survey among freshmen from four Italian universities. Methods. This observational cross-sectional study was conducted with an anonymous self-reported paper questionnaire, administered during teaching lectures to university freshmen of the northern (Padua, Bergamo, and Milan campuses) and southern (Palermo campus) parts of the country. Knowledge of STI (a linear numerical score), knowledge of STI prevention (dichotomous variable: yes vs. no) and previous STI occurrence (polytomous variable: “no”; “don’t know”; “yes”) were the outcomes in the statistical analysis. Results. The final number of freshmen surveyed was 4552 (97.9% response rate). The mean age of respondents was 21.4 ± 2.2 years and most of them (70.3%) were females. A total of 60% of students were in a stable romantic relationship. Only 28% respondents knew the most effective methods to prevent STI (i.e., condom and sexual abstinence), with a slightly higher prevalence of correct answers among females (31.3%) than males (25.8%). Students with history of STIs were 5.1%; they reported referring mostly to their general practitioner (GP) (38.1%) rather than discussing the problem with their partner (13.1%). At multivariable analysis, a significantly higher level of STI knowledge was observed in older students (25+ years of age), biomedical students, and those from a non-nuclear family; lower levels were found among students of the University of Palermo, and those who completed a vocational secondary school education. Those who had less knowledge about the most effective tools to prevent STIs included males, students from the University of Palermo, students registered with educational sciences, economics/political sciences, those of foreign nationality, and those whose fathers had lower educational levels. The risk of contracting STI was significantly lower only in students not in a stable relationship (relative risk ratio, RRR = 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI = 0.48; 0.94), whereas such risk was significantly higher in students with higher STI knowledge (RRR = 1.15; 95%CI = 1.08; 1.22). Discussion and Conclusions. University freshmen investigated in this study had poor knowledge of STIs and their prevention. Unexpectedly, those with higher levels of knowledge had an increased risk of STIs. There were no educational interventions—with good quality and long-term follow-ups—that increased the confidence that such SHE programs could have population level effects. A new high-quality study is therefore required to assess the effectiveness of an intervention generating behavioral changes; increasing only knowledge may not be sufficient.

2022 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Erin K. Barker ◽  
Mohsen Malekinejad ◽  
Rikita Merai ◽  
Cynthia M. Lyles ◽  
Theresa Ann Sipe ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Slobodan Subotic ◽  
Vladimir Vukomanovic ◽  
Svetlana Djukic ◽  
Svetlana Radevic ◽  
Snezana Radovanovic ◽  

Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual habits, and behavior among students of medical and nonmedical students in Serbia.Methodology: The cross-sectional study of 1,273 university students of four undergraduate institutions in Serbia, two of medical and two of nonmedical orientation. A standardized questionnaire, prepared in line with the questionnaire of the European health research—the second wave (European Health Interview Survey—EHIS wave 2), according to defined internationally accepted indicators, was used as a survey instrument.Results: Statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) between medical and nonmedical student groups was determined for the following parameters: naming four of five STIs (29.1 vs. 13.4%), knowledge about vaccines against some STIs (26.0 vs. 17.0%), relationship between HPV infection and cervical malignancy (48.2 vs. 16.7%) engaged in the sexual relations (87.9 vs. 76.4%), never used a condom (15.2 vs. 10.4%), underwent gynecological or urological examination (66.7 vs. 44.1%), and tested to one of STIs (10.5 vs. 4.9%).Conclusion: Both student groups have limited knowledge on possible consequences that risky sexual behavior has for reproductive health. Promotion of knowledge about STIs, awareness of all complications, and consequences of these infections certainly affect the reduction of risky behavior.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Mahin Izadi ◽  
Laleh Dehghan Marvast ◽  
Mohammad Ebrahim Rezvani ◽  
Marzieh Zohrabi ◽  
Ali Aliabadi ◽  

Some microbial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have adverse effects on the reproductive tract, sperm function, and male fertility. Given that STIs are often asymptomatic and cause major complications such as urogenital inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring, optimal treatments should be performed to prevent the noxious effect of STIs on male fertility. Among STIs, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common asymptomatic preventable bacterial STI. C. trachomatis can affect both sperm and the male reproductive tract. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been considered as a new therapeutic medicine due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and regenerative effects without consequences through the stem cell transplantation based therapies. Inflammation of the genital tract and sperm dysfunction are the consequences of the microbial infections, especially Chlamydia trachomatis. Exosome therapy as a noninvasive approach has shown promising results on the ability to regenerate the damaged sperm and treating asthenozoospermia. Recent experimental methods may be helpful in the novel treatments of male infertility. Thus, it is demonstrated that exosomes play an important role in preventing the consequences of infection, and thereby preventing inflammation, reducing cell damage, inhibiting fibrogenesis, and reducing scar formation. This review aimed to overview the studies about the potential therapeutic roles of MSCs-derived exosomes on sperm abnormalities and male infertility caused by STIs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Wei Tu ◽  
Yu-Ye Li ◽  
Yi-Qun Kuang ◽  
Rong-Hui Xie ◽  
Xing-Qi Dong ◽  

Abstract Background Yunnan has the highest rates of HIV in China. Other treatable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with accelerated HIV transmission and poor ART outcomes, but are only diagnosed by syndromic algorithms. Methods We recruited 406 HIV-positive participants for a cross-sectional study (204 ART-naive and 202 receiving ART). Blood samples and first-voided urine samples were collected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction methods were used for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) tests were also performed. Results Among the 406 participants, the overall prevalence of STIs was 47.0% and 45.1% in ART-naive individuals and 49.0% in individuals receiving ART, respectively. The testing frequencies were 11.6% (11.8% vs. 11.4%), 33.2% (29.4% vs. 37.1%), 3.2% (3.4% vs. 3.0%), 2.0% (3.4% vs. 0.5%) and 4.7% (6.4% vs. 3.0%) for active syphilis, HSV-2, CT, NG and MG, respectively. The percentage of multiple infections in both groups was 10.8% (22/204) in ART-naive participants and 9.9% (20/202) in participants receiving ART. Female sex, an age between 18 and 35 years, ever injecting drugs, homosexual or bisexual status, HIV/HBV coinfection, and not receiving ART were identified as risk factors. Self-reported asymptomatic patients were not eliminated from having a laboratory-diagnosed STI. Conclusions The STI prevalence was 47.0% (45.1% vs. 49.0%), and HSV-2, syphilis and MG were the most common STIs in HIV-infected individuals. We found a high prevalence (6.4%) of MG in ART-naive individuals. HIV-positive individuals tend to neglect or hide their genital tract discomfort; thus, we suggest strengthening STI joint screening and treatment services among HIV-infected individuals regardless of whether they describe genital tract discomfort.

10.2196/34885 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. e34885
Thiago Silva Torres ◽  
Emilia Moreira Jalil ◽  
Lara Esteves Coelho ◽  
Daniel Rodrigues Barros Bezerra ◽  
Cristina Moreira Jalil ◽  

Background In many parts of the world, including Brazil, uptake for biomedical interventions has been insufficient to reverse the HIV epidemic among key populations at high risk for HIV, including men who have sex with men. Young MSM (YMSM), particularly Black YMSM, have high HIV incidence, low viral suppression, and low preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake and adherence. Therefore, novel approaches to increase the HIV biomedical interventions uptake by YMSM are urgently needed. Objective We describe the [email protected] Project, which aims to: (1) estimate the prevalence and incidence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, the onset of sexual risk behavior, and barriers to biomedical interventions among YMSM aged 18 to 24 years in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; and (2) conduct a technology-based adherence intervention study to promote a rapid linkage of YMSM to HIV care or prevention, and support and sustain adherence. Methods A cross-sectional survey will be conducted with 400 YMSM recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) adapted for social media-based sampling, preceded by a formative phase. HIV and sexually transmitted infections testing will be conducted, including early HIV infection biomarker detection. Behavioral, partnership, network, and structural measures will be collected through structured questionnaires. All individuals recruited for the survey will have access to HIV risk assessment, antiretroviral therapy (ART), PrEP, prevention counseling, and a technology-based adherence intervention. Those who accept the adherence intervention will receive weekly text messages via a social networking app (WhatsApp) for 24 weeks, with follow-up data collected over 48 weeks. Results The [email protected] project has been approved by our local institutional review board (#CAAE 26086719.0.0000.4262) in accordance with all applicable regulations. Questionnaires for the RDS survey and intervention were developed and tested in 2020, formative interviews were conducted in January and February 2021 to guide the development of the RDS, and enrollment is planned to begin in early 2022. Conclusions The [email protected] Project is a vanguard study that, for the first time, will apply digital RDS to sample and recruit YMSM in Brazil and rapidly connect them to ART, PrEP, or prevention counseling through a technology-based adherence intervention. RDS will allow us to estimate HIV prevalence among YMSM and measure HIV infection biomarkers in the context of the onset of risky behavior. The data will lay the groundwork to adapt and implement HIV prevention strategies, identify barriers to the earliest HIV infection diagnosis, immediate ART or PrEP initiation, and detect new clusters of HIV transmission. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/34885

Venereology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 23-46
Benjamin Silverberg ◽  
Amy Moyers ◽  
Tate Hinkle ◽  
Roanna Kessler ◽  
Nancy G. Russell

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently updated their Sexually-Transmitted Infection (STI) Treatment Guidelines with a revision to the approach to gonococcal infections in December 2020 and other STIs in July 2021. This article reviews the new recommendations and highlights important updates from the 2015 iteration that are crucial for primary care and community health practice.

Liang Peng ◽  
Jingping Gao ◽  
Zihao Hu ◽  
Hongbo Zhang ◽  
Lingli Tang ◽  

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted diseases globally. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can ascend to the upper genital tract and establish a series of severe complications. Previous studies using C3−/− and C5−/− mice models demonstrated that C3-independent activation of C5 occurred during C. trachomatis infection. However, the mechanism of how chlamydial infection activates C5 in the absence of C3 has yet to be elucidated. To delineate interactions between C5 and chlamydial infection, cleavage products in a co-incubation system containing purified human C5 and C. trachomatis-HeLa229 cell lysates were analyzed, and a novel cleavage pattern of C5 activation induced by C. trachomatis infection was identified. C5 was cleaved efficiently at the previously unidentified site K970, but was cleaved poorly at site R751. C5b was modified to C5bCt, which later formed C5bCt-9, which had enhanced lytic ability compared with C5b-9. The chlamydial serine protease CPAF contributed to C3-independent C5 activation during C. trachomatis infection. Nafamostat mesylate, a serine protease inhibitor with a good safety profile, had a strong inhibitory effect on C5 activation induced by chlamydial infection. These discoveries reveal the mechanism of C3-independent C5 activation induced by chlamydial infection, and furthermore provide a potential therapeutic target and drug for preventing tubal fibrosis caused by chlamydial infection.

JAMA ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 327 (2) ◽  
pp. 161
Susan Tuddenham ◽  
Matthew M. Hamill ◽  
Khalil G. Ghanem

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