internal and external factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
Steve Georgakis ◽  
Peter Horton

Lawn bowls is one of the oldest formally established British sports in Australia. This paper provides an overview of the place of lawn bowls in Australian history and society from 1864 to 2021 through four eras: British nationalism (1864–1900); middle class sport (1900–1945); leading seniors sport (1945–1990); and decline (1990–2021). The four eras cover the span of Australian lawn bowls and are based on historical data from both primary and secondary sources tracing its rise and decline. The decline in lawn bowls has been a combination of both internal and external factors. This paper is not a purely chronological account of lawn bowls, but rather provides a framework to better understand the place and role of the sport in Australian culture and society. The origins of lawn bowls in Australia are directly linked to the cultural heritage that stemmed from British settlement. Lawn bowls provides a vehicle to develop insight and understanding into several past, current, and future social and cultural issues including seniors sport, sport participation rates, gender relations, nationalism, class structures, urbanisation, and the development of contemporary cities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (02) ◽  
pp. 106-117
Ade Rahmat ◽  
Iskandar Iskandar

The  purpose  of  the study. to analyze the factors that affect the learning outcomes of Physical Education, Sports, and Health of class XI students at Senior High School. there are three factors that can affect the learning outcomes of Physical Education, Sports and Health, namely factors contained within students (internal factors), factors that come from outside (external factors) and factors from the learning approach of the students themselves. Materials and methods. The population of this research is class XI State Senior High School. Qualitative descriptive analysis study using data collection techniques and instruments, namely documentation techniques and questionnaire techniques with randomly selected samples. Results. Based on the research results, internal and external factors often affect the learning outcomes of Physical Education, Sports and Health. Conclusions. internal and external factors often affect learning outcomes in Physical Education, Sports and Health. Likewise, the learning approach factors classified as sometimes affect the learning outcomes of Physical Education, Sports and Health.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Naila Fares ◽  
Jaime Lloret

Purpose Focussing on issues that have impacted textiles, clothing and fast fashion following the COVID-19 outbreak, this study aims to identify agility factors pertinent to retail maturity management, mainly on resilience. These factors were then assessed based on priority. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis to identify the main factors. This analysis was integrated with the analytic hierarchy process to rank the internal and external factors. Then, the authors used fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to the ideal solution to evaluate the significant strategies from the SWOT analysis based on adaptability and flexibility. Thus, the authors produced a prioritised list of relevant factors and guidelines useful in practical settings. Findings The authors identified and ranked 14 agility and resilience SWOT factors for maturity management and proposed and prioritised six relevant strategies. These highlighted changes and adaptations must be undertaken by various actors, ranging from the supply/manufacturing side to global retail locations. Research limitations/implications The sampling study of experts is limited, and the application is focussed on one area. Future research might investigate other fields, for retail and industry. Practical implications The output of this study enables a better understanding of the internal and external factors of maturity management for fast-fashion retailers. Hence, it will further help them go through resilience and agility challenges following the pandemic. Originality/value This study significantly contributes to the literature because the results can guide retailers in developing effective decision-making systems for mature business operations following the pandemic outbreak. Here, the authors incorporate internal, external, agility and resilience aspects into one decision-making support system while enhancing existing knowledge on fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making applications. Further, this study discusses critical issues that have affected several aspects of the fashion and textile industry and will likely persist for some time.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-6
Amrita Nugraheni SARASWATY

One of the points of the 2030 sustainable development goals is to ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns. One strategy that can be used is to consume food and non-food based on pro-environment (green product). This study aims to determine how the consumption pattern of green products from urban communities in Denpasar City. What are the internal and external factors that encourage urban communities in the city of Denpasar to consume green products? The analysis used in this research is descriptive analysis which is useful for looking at the average, cross tabulation of demographic factors, internal and external factors with the choice of consuming green products from the urban community of Denpasar. The results of the study stated that the factors that became the basis for people to consume green products were 1) the desire to adopt a more environmentally friendly lifestyle, 2) health factors, 3) better quality of goods, and 4) following trends. Types of Green Products consumed by respondents include: eco bags, drinking water bottles, straws, tablespoons, bath soap, organic vegetables and fruits, lunch boxes, snacks, cosmetics, and mineral water. Public awareness of the city of Denpasar is becoming a trend in the implementation of achieving sustainable development goals.

2022 ◽  
Vol 78 (03) ◽  
pp. 6626-2022

In mammals, oocytes, fertilized eggs and pre-implantation embryos are surrounded by an acellular zona pellucida (zona pellucida – ZP). This structure has a fibro-spongy character but it undergoes constant modifications throughout its existence depending on many internal and external factors. ZP consists of glycoproteins marked as ZP1, ZP2, ZP3 and ZP4, the presence of which is species different. ZP1 and probably ZP4 molecules stabilize the fibrillary skeleton of the zona pellucida formed of ZP2 and ZP3 protein polymers which are ligands for specific spermatozoid receptors. The oligosaccharide chains of ZP3 are responsible for the primary attachment of the male gamete which induces the acrosomal reaction. ZP2 enhances this connection by secondary binding to an acrosome-free spermatozoid. Additionally, oviductal specific glycoprotein 1 which plays a role in interspecific oocyte-sperm interactions, appears around the postovulatory oocyte surrounded by ZP. In addition, this protein modifies the resistance of ZP to the action of proteases released as a result of the cortical reaction during polyspermia block. After fertilization, ZP not only protects the egg and then the embryo until implantation, but also has an embryotrophic effect. Understanding the molecular basics of the structure and properties of ZP can significantly improve animal fertility as well as reproductive rates.

2022 ◽  
pp. 49-75
Orhan Yabanci

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the academic integrity of undergraduate tourism students amid the new normal. The chapter focuses on understanding the underlying reasons that instigate tourism students to cheat in written assignments. The findings reveal that tourism students are motivated to cheat by both internal and external factors. Individual or personal factors, such as students' characters, their knowledge, abilities, interests, levels of motivation, and commitment would affect the intention to cheat. Furthermore, time-related situations, the course itself, the assignment topic, demands of the assignment and the informing process, the teacher and the teaching process, the course materials, availability of the academic sources, the teaching, and the assessment environments are situational and/or contextual factors that instigate the students to cheat on their written assignments.

This review study focuses on a forensic psychological tool, Brain electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling, and its mechanism. In precise, this paper reviews the studies of eyewitness testimony and BEOS in particular. The previous empirical studies and review articles elucidate that BEOS can be used to overcome the effect of internal and external factors in eyewitness testimony. False memory or confabulatory experiences would not affect the accuracy of Brain Electrical Oscillation Signature Profiling. During the trial process, witness testimony can do through BEOS in the future. More empirical researches are necessary for the application of forensic psychology tools in the field of witness testimony.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Decision-making is required frequently from a project manager. Therefore, this study investigates the fundamentals of economic decision-making, beneficial project manager characteristics, methods that help the project manager’s decision-making, and when economic decision-making should be applied. It was found that internal and external factors influence economic decision-making for a project manager. Also, it was established that economic decision-making should be implemented throughout the duration of the project. When there is not enough data to support economic estimation methods and no time to improve the method, then the project manager must use his/her experience to make a decision.

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