prolonged mechanical ventilation
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Critical Care ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Marta Martín-Fernández ◽  
María Heredia-Rodríguez ◽  
Irene González-Jiménez ◽  
Mario Lorenzo-López ◽  
Estefanía Gómez-Pesquera ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Despite growing interest in treatment strategies that limit oxygen exposure in ICU patients, no studies have compared conservative oxygen with standard oxygen in postsurgical patients with sepsis/septic shock, although there are indications that it may improve outcomes. It has been proven that high partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) reduces the rate of surgical-wound infections and mortality in patients under major surgery. The aim of this study is to examine whether PaO2 is associated with risk of death in adult patients with sepsis/septic shock after major surgery. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study in 454 patients who underwent major surgery admitted into a single ICU. Patients were stratified in two groups whether they had hyperoxemia, defined as PaO2 > 100 mmHg (n = 216), or PaO2 ≤ 100 mmHg (n = 238) at the day of sepsis/septic shock onset according to SEPSIS-3 criteria maintained during 48 h. Primary end-point was 90-day mortality after diagnosis of sepsis. Secondary endpoints were ICU length of stay and time to extubation. Results In patients with PaO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, we found prolonged mechanical ventilation (2 [8] vs. 1 [4] days, p < 0.001), higher ICU stay (8 [13] vs. 5 [9] days, p < 0.001), higher organ dysfunction as assessed by SOFA score (9 [3] vs. 7 [5], p < 0.001), higher prevalence of septic shock (200/238, 84.0% vs 145/216) 67.1%, p < 0.001), and higher 90-day mortality (37.0% [88] vs. 25.5% [55], p = 0.008). Hyperoxemia was associated with higher probability of 90-day survival in a multivariate analysis (OR 0.61, 95%CI: 0.39–0.95, p = 0.029), independent of age, chronic renal failure, procalcitonin levels, and APACHE II score > 19. These findings were confirmed when patients with severe hypoxemia at the time of study inclusion were excluded. Conclusions Oxygenation with a PaO2 above 100 mmHg was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality, shorter ICU stay and intubation time in critically ill postsurgical sepsis/septic shock patients. Our findings open a new venue for designing clinical trials to evaluate the boundaries of PaO2 in postsurgical patients with severe infections.


2022 ◽  
pp. 72-79
Author(s):  
V. M. Nekoval ◽  
S. K. Efetov ◽  
P. V. Tsarkov

Introduction. The lack of consensus guidelines for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) in senile patients, the high incidence of early postoperative complications after radical surgery caused the search for the most optimal approach to the management of this category of patients.The aim is to introduce a geriatric approach to the treatment of colorectal cancer in senile patients, reduce the incidence of Clavien–Dindo grade 4 early postoperative complications.Materials and methods. 190 senile patients who underwent radical surgery with D3 lymphadenectomy with stage II and III colorectal cancer were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups: the control group included 100 patients who underwent standard treatment, the study group included 90 patients, to whom the geriatric approach with a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) and subsequent pre-rehabilitation was applied. A comparative intergroup analysis was performed on the basis of obtained data.Results. The study group differed from the control group in higher polymorbidity and high operational and anesthetic risk (p <0.001). Implementation of geriatric pre-rehabilitation with due account for CGA results and correction of polymorbidity improved chances of providing surgical care using laparoscopic and robotic technologies. The frequency of intraoperative blood transfusion and prolonged mechanical ventilation in the study group was reduced (p <0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). Predictors that increase the chances of developing acute postoperative myocardial infarction were identified. They included the patient’s male gender (p = 0.004), redo surgery after development of early postoperative complications (p = 0.043), prolonged mechanical ventilation (p = 0.052), increased length of stay in the intensive care unit (p = 0.011), and comorbidity (p = 0.022). The introduction of the geriatric approach made it possible to reduce the risk of postoperative myocardial infarction by 17.86 times (p = 0.007).Conclusion. The geriatric approach to the senile patients with colorectal cancer makes it possible to expand the indications for radical treatment in severe polymorbidity and senile asthenia, as well as to reduce the incidence of early postoperative complications.


Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 30
Author(s):  
Eugenio Spaggiari ◽  
Maria Amato ◽  
Ornella Angela Ricca ◽  
Luigi Corradini Zini ◽  
Ilaria Bianchedi ◽  
...  

Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation in preterm infants may cause complications. We aimed to analyze the variables affecting extubation outcomes in preterm infants at high risk of extubation failure. Methods: This was a single-center, observational, retrospective study. Extubation failure was defined as survival with the need for reintubation within 72 h. Successfully extubated neonates (group 1) were compared to those with failed extubation (group 2). Multivariate logistic regression analysis evaluated factors that predicted extubation outcomes. Results: Eighty infants with a birth weight under 1000 g and/or gestational age (GA) under 28 weeks were included. Extubation failure occurred in 29 (36.2%) and success in 51 (63.8%) neonates. Most failures (75.9%) occurred within 24 h. Pre-extubation inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2) of 27% had a sensitivity of 58.6% and specificity of 64.7% for extubation failure. Post-extubation FiO2 of 32% had a sensitivity of 65.5% and specificity of 62.8% for failure. Prolonged membrane rupture (PROM) and high GA were associated with extubation success in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: High GA and PROM were associated with extubation success. Pre- and post-extubation FiO2 values were not significantly predictive of extubation failure. Further studies should evaluate if overall assessment, including ventilatory parameters and clinical factors, can predict extubation success in neonates.


2021 ◽  
Vol 148 (12) ◽  
pp. 152-157
Author(s):  
Nguyen Thi Quynh Nga ◽  
Nguyen Thi Van

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that is most commonly seen in premature infants who require prolonged mechanical ventilation and oxygen therapy. 75% of intubated infants have episodes of dysfunctional surfactants associated with lower levels of surfactant proteins. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of late surfactant therapy in treating BPD in premature infants. Nineteen preterm infants diagnosed with severe BPD requiring mechanic ventilation, according to Jobe and Bancalari, were treated with surfactant (Poractant alpha 100mg/kg intra-tracheal). Patients were observed for change in oxygen requirement before and at 1-h, 6-h, 12-h, 24-h, and 48-h after treatment. There were 13 boys and 6 girls; boy to girl ratio was 2.16/1. The mean gestation age was 28.3 ± 2 weeks; the mean birth weight was 1134.7 ± 314 gram. There was an increase in SpO2 (saturation of peripheral oxygen), PaO2 (the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) and reduction in FiO2 (fraction of inspired oxygen), PaCO2 (the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood), OI (oxygen index), MAP (mean airway pressure) and AaDO2 (Alveolar-to-arterial oxygen gradient) after surfactant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with severe BPD, late surfactant therapy has shown initial benefits in lung functions and reducing oxygen requirement.


Author(s):  
Celina Elias D’souza ◽  
Mandar Malawade

Background: There is a large incidence of congenital thoracic abnormalities that manifest as deformities and or defects of anterior chest walls. Thoracic abnormalities in preterm infants may also be associated with malpositioning in the incubator in the presence of respiratory disease and prolonged mechanical ventilation. Immaturity of respiratory and musculoskeletal system need to compromise biomechanical function of thorax. Thus, the purpose of the study is to access the thoracic alteration and the factors associated with its abnormalities in the infants born prematurely. Objective: Assess thoracic alteration in premature infants.  Methods: This was an observational study with infants in first year of age, born prematurely with birth weight < 2000g. Exclusion criteria were: major congenital malformations as defined by the centers for disease contol and prevention, grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage or preventricular leucomalacia. Physical examinations were performed independently to assess shoulder elevation and thoracic alterations. Results: 34 infants born prematurely were included for the study according to the inclusion criteria from which 20 infants (58.8%) showed thoracic abnormalities and remaining 14 infants (41.1%) were without abnormalities. Conclusion: The prevalence of thoracic abnormalities was high in infants born prematurely, and was associated with pulmonary disease, and may also have compromised the growth rate of these infants during the first year of life.


2021 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
pp. 406-406
Author(s):  
Thiago Bassi ◽  
Elizabeth Rohrs ◽  
Steve Reynolds

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sung Woo Moon ◽  
Song Yee Kim ◽  
Ji Soo Choi ◽  
Ah Young Leem ◽  
Su Hwan Lee ◽  
...  

AbstractIn elderly ICU patients, the prevalence of skeletal muscle loss is high. Longitudinal effect of thoracic muscles, especially in elderly ICU patients, are unclear although skeletal muscle loss is related with the short- and long-term outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate whether pectoralis muscle mass loss could be a predictor of prognosis in elderly ICU patients. We retrospectively evaluated 190 elderly (age > 70 years) patients admitted to the ICU. We measured the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the pectoralis muscle (PMCSA) at the fourth vertebral region. CT scans within two days before ICU admission were used for analysis. Mortality, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and longitudinal changes in Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were examined. PMCSA below median was significantly related with prolonged ventilation (odds ratio 2.92) and a higher SOFA scores during the ICU stay (estimated mean = 0.94). PMCSA below median was a significant risk for hospital mortality (hazards ratio 2.06). In elderly ICU patients, a low ICU admission PMCSA was associated with prolonged ventilation, higher SOFA score during the ICU stay, and higher mortality. Adding thoracic skeletal muscle CSA at the time of ICU admission into consideration in deciding the therapeutic intensity in elderly ICU patients may help in making medical decisions.


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