premature infants
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Neonatology ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Se In Sung ◽  
So Yoon Ahn ◽  
Suk-Joo Choi ◽  
Soo-young Oh ◽  
Cheong-Rae Roh ◽  

<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> We experienced an increased incidence of meconium-related ileus (MRI) in extremely premature infants (EPIs) while adopting the antenatal magnesium sulfate (MgSO<sub>4</sub>) protocol for fetal neuroprotection in our neonatal intensive care unit. This study aimed to test whether antenatal MgSO<sub>4</sub> use was associated with increased risk of MRI in EPIs. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> The incidences of complicated MRI requiring aggressive enema or surgical intervention and other intestinal complications were compared among period 1 (January 2012–December 2013, <i>n</i> = 79), before adoption of the antenatal MgSO<sub>4</sub> protocol for fetal neuroprotection; period 2 (January 2014–March 2016, <i>n</i> = 72), when the protocol was adopted; and period 3 (April 2016–September 2018, <i>n</i> = 75), when the protocol was temporarily withdrawn due to concern regarding intestinal complications in EPIs. <b><i>Results:</i></b> Despite similar baseline clinical characteristics among infants across the study periods, the MRI and MRI with surgical treatment incidences were higher in period 2 than those in periods 1 and 3 (13% vs. 8% and 6%, <i>p</i> = 0.391, and 11% vs. 0% and 1%, <i>p</i> = 0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, exposure to antenatal MgSO<sub>4</sub> independently increased the risk of MRI (adjusted odds ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 10.6). <b><i>Conclusion:</i></b> Antenatal MgSO<sub>4</sub> may increase the risk of MRI, frequently requiring surgical intervention, in EPIs with a gestational age of 25 weeks or less.

Tone Nordvik ◽  
Eva M. Schumacher ◽  
Pål G. Larsson ◽  
Are H. Pripp ◽  
Gro C. Løhaugen ◽  

Abstract Background Evidence regarding the predictive value of early amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG)/EEG on neurodevelopmental outcomes at school age and beyond is lacking. We  aimed to investigate whether there is an association between early postnatal EEG and neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood. Methods This study is an observational prospective cohort study of premature infants with a gestational age <28 weeks. The total absolute band powers (tABP) of the delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands were analyzed from EEG recordings during the first three days of life. At 10–12 years of age, neurocognitive outcomes were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 4th edition (WISC-IV), Vineland adaptive behavior scales 2nd edition, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). The mean differences in tABP were assessed for individuals with normal versus unfavorable neurocognitive scores. Results Twenty-two infants were included. tABP values in all four frequency bands were significantly lower in infants with unfavorable results in the main composite scores (full intelligence quotient, adaptive behavior composite score, and global executive composite score) on all three tests (p < 0.05). Conclusions Early postnatal EEG has the potential to assist in predicting cognitive outcomes at 10–12 years of age in extremely premature infants <28 weeks’ gestation. Impact Evidence regarding the value of early postnatal EEG in long-term prognostication in preterm infants is limited. Our study suggests that early EEG spectral analysis correlates with neurocognitive outcomes in late childhood in extremely preterm infants. Early identification of infants at-risk of later impairment is important to initiate early and targeted follow-up and intervention.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 700
Rory J. Heath ◽  
Susanna Klevebro ◽  
Thomas R. Wood

The N3 and N6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are essential for proper neurodevelopment in early life. These fatty acids are passed from mother to infant via the placenta, accreting into fetal tissues such as brain and adipose tissue. Placental transfer of LCPUFA is highest in the final trimester, but this transfer is abruptly severed with premature birth. As such, efforts have been made to supplement the post-natal feed of premature infants with LCPUFA to improve neurodevelopmental outcomes. This narrative review analyzes the current body of evidence pertinent to neurodevelopmental outcomes after LCPUFA supplementation in prematurely born infants, which was identified via the reference lists of systematic and narrative reviews and PubMed search engine results. This review finds that, while the evidence is weakened by heterogeneity, it may be seen that feed comprising 0.3% DHA and 0.6% AA is associated with more positive neurodevelopmental outcomes than LCPUFA-deplete feed. While no new RCTs have been performed since the most recent Cochrane meta-analysis in 2016, this narrative review provides a wider commentary; the wider effects of LCPUFA supplementation in prematurely born infants, the physiology of LCPUFA accretion into preterm tissues, and the physiological effects of LCPUFA that affect neurodevelopment. We also discuss the roles of maternal LCPUFA status as a modifiable factor affecting the risk of preterm birth and infant neurodevelopmental outcomes. To better understand the role of LCPUFAs in infant neurodevelopment, future study designs must consider absolute and relative availabilities of all LCPUFA species and incorporate the LCPUFA status of both mother and infant in pre- and postnatal periods.

2022 ◽  
Tora Söderström Gaden ◽  
Claire Ghetti ◽  
Ingrid Kvestad ◽  
Łucja Bieleninik ◽  
Andreas Størksen Stordal ◽  

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate short-term effects of music therapy (MT) for premature infants and their caregivers on mother-infant bonding, parental anxiety, and maternal depression. METHODS: Parallel, pragmatic, randomized controlled-trial conducted in 7 level III NICUs and 1 level IV NICU in 5 countries enrolling premature infants (&lt;35 weeks gestational age at birth) and their parents. MT included 3 sessions per week with parent-led, infant-directed singing supported by a music therapist. Primary outcome was mother-infant bonding as measured by the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) at discharge from NICU. Secondary outcomes were parents’ symptoms of anxiety measured by General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and maternal depression measured by Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Group differences at the assessment timepoint of discharge from hospital were tested by linear mixed effect models (ANCOVA). RESULTS: From August 2018 to April 2020, 213 families were enrolled in the study, of whom 108 were randomly assigned to standard care and 105 to MT. Of the participants, 208 of 213 (98%) completed treatment and assessments. Participants in the MT group received a mean (SD) of 10 sessions (5.95), and 87 of 105 participants (83%) received the minimum of 6 sessions. The estimated group effect (95% confidence interval) for PBQ was −0.61 (−1.82 to 0.59). No significant differences between groups were found (P = .32). No significant effects for secondary outcomes or subgroups were found. CONCLUSIONS: Parent-led, infant-directed singing supported by a music therapist resulted in no significant differences between groups in mother-infant bonding, parental anxiety, or maternal depression at discharge.

Delia Cristóbal Cañadas ◽  
Antonio Bonillo Perales ◽  
Rafael Galera Martínez ◽  
María del Pilar Casado-Belmonte ◽  
Tesifón Parrón Carreño

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the randomised controlled trials that explored the effect of kangaroo mother care on physiological stress parameters of premature infants. Methods: Two independent researchers performed a systematic review of indexed studies in PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane and Scopus. We included data from randomized controlled trials measuring the effects of kangaroo care compared to standard incubator care on physiological stress outcomes, defined as oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate and respiratory rate. The PRISMA model was used to conduct data extraction. We performed a narrative synthesis of all studies and a meta-analysis when data were available from multiple studies that compared the same physiological parameters with the kangaroo method as an intervention and controls and used the same outcome measures. Results: Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. According to statistical analysis, the mean respiratory rate of preterm infants receiving KMC was lower than that of infants receiving standard incubator care (MD, −3.50; 95% CI, −5.17 to −1.83; p < 0.00001). Infants who received kangaroo mother care had a higher mean heart rate, oxygen saturation and temperature, although these results were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that kangaroo care in the neonatal intensive care unit setting is a safe method that may have a significant effect on some of the physiological parameters of stress in preterm infants. However, due to clinical heterogeneity, further studies are needed to assess the effects of physiological stress in the neonatal intensive care unit on the development of preterm infants.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiuhao Zhao ◽  
Wenhua Liang ◽  
Yonghui Wang ◽  
Ruirong Yi ◽  
Lingjie Luo ◽  

Abstract Background Neonates possess an immature and plastic immune system, which is a major cause of some diseases in newborns. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe and devastating intestinal disease that typically affects premature infants. However, the development of intestinal immune cells in neonates and their roles in the pathological process of NEC have not been elucidated. Results We examined the ontogeny of intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes in the early life of mice and found a high percentage of RORγt+ cells (containing inflammatory Th17 and ILC3 populations) during the first week of life. Importantly, the proportion of RORγt+ cells of intestinal lamina propria further increased in both NEC mice and patients tissue than the control. Furthermore, the application of GSK805, a specific antagonist of RORγt, inhibited IL-17A release and ameliorated NEC severity. Conclusions Our data reveal the high proportion of RORγt+ cells in newborn mice may directly contribute to the development of NEC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Yusheng Liu ◽  
Lingyan Qiao ◽  
Xiongwei Wu ◽  
Zhong Jiang ◽  
Xiwei Hao

Abstract Background Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal disease that tends to occur in premature infants. Some features may be associated with an increased probability that preterm infants with NEC will require surgical treatment. This study aimed to identify the factors that increased the probability of surgical treatment in infants with NEC. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data of premature infants with NEC who were hospitalized at The Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from April 2011 to April 2021. According to the treatments received, these patients were divided into medical NEC group and surgical NEC group. The perinatal characteristics, clinical manifestations, and laboratory values before the onset of NEC were subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses. Results A total of 623 preterm infants with NEC (> Bell’s stage I) were included in this study, including 350 (56%) who received surgical treatment and 273 (44%) who received conservative medical treatment. Multivariate analysis showed that lower gestational age (P = 0.001, odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) = 0.91[0.86–0.96]), early occurrence of NEC (P = 0.003, OR (95% CI) = 0.86 [0.77–0.95]), hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (P = 0.003, OR (95% CI) = 7.50 [2.03–28.47]), and low serum bicarbonate (P = 0.043, OR (95% CI) = 0.863 [0.749–0.995]) were associated with an increased probability of surgical treatment in preterm infants with NEC. Conclusions Our findings were applied to identify potential predictors for surgical treatment in preterm infants with NEC, which may facilitate early decisive management.

Breastfeeding ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 502-545
Ivan L. Hand ◽  
Lawrence Noble

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