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BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Elham Sajjadi ◽  
Konstantinos Venetis ◽  
Roberto Piciotti ◽  
Donatella Gambini ◽  
Concetta Blundo ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss is associated with tumorigenesis, tumor progression, and therapy resistance in breast cancer. However, the clinical value of PTEN as a biomarker in these patients is controversial. We sought to determine whether the benefit of traditional biomarkers testing is improved by the analysis of PTEN status for the identification of high-risk breast cancer. Methods A cohort of 608 patients with breast cancer was included in this study. Based on the expression on the neoplastic cells compared to the normal internal controls by immunohistochemistry (IHC), cases were classified as PTEN-low (PTEN-L) or PTEN-retained (PTEN-WT). The former constituted the study group, while the latter the control group. Analysis of gene expression was performed on publicly available genomic data and included 4265 patients from the METABRIC and MSK cohorts retrieved from cBioPortal. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to analyze the normal distributions of continuous variables. Relationships between PTEN status and the clinicopathologic and molecular features of the patient population were assessed using Fisher’s exact test or Chi-squared/Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Survival curves were built according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Alteration in PTEN status was significantly different at protein and gene levels, where the reduced protein expression was observed in 280/608 cases (46.1%) from our group, while genetic aberrations in only 315/4265 (7.4%) cases of the METABRIC and MSK cohorts. PTEN-L tumors were significantly enriched for hormone receptors (HR) and HER2 negativity (n = 48, 17.1%) compared to PTEN-WT tumors (n = 22, 6.7%; p = 0.0008). Lack of HR with or without HER2 overexpression/amplification was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) in PTEN-L but not in PTEN-WT breast cancers (p < .0001). Moreover, PTEN-L protein expression but not gene alterations was related to the outcome, in terms of both OS and disease-free survival (p = 0.002). Conclusions The combined analysis of PTEN, HER2, and HR status offers relevant information for a more precise risk assessment of patients with breast cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Özlem Ulu Kalın ◽  
◽  
Erol Koçoğlu ◽  

Due to globalization and the impact of industrialization and urbanization, natural resources are wasted, and popular consumption leads to environmental waste. The problem of waste that deteriorates individual and social life is a prominent current issue. Recycling, described as the remanufacturing, production and employment of collected material, is an important solution to that problem. The present study aimed to determine the awareness of pre-service social studies teachers about the concept of environmental waste recycling and to analyze acrostic poems written by the participants. The study findings included the views of the pre-service social studies teachers. A semi-structured interview form was developed by the authors under expert supervision and employed to collect the views of the pre-service teachers. The pre-service teachers included in the study sample were assigned with simple random sampling technique and the study group included 162 pre-service social studies teachers. The descriptive survey model was employed in the study, the data were analyzed with content and descriptive analysis techniques to determine thematic codes. Furthermore, an acrostic poem authoring activity on the concept of recycling was conducted with the participants. The poems authored by the participants are presented as a category in a table in the findings section. The study findings revealed significant results on the recycling concept and processes. It was determined that the views of the participating pre-service social studies teachers reflected a high level of awareness on the concept of recycling and exhibited various perspectives on the implementation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Derya Cinar ◽  

Today, the perceptions of individuals who are performing the teaching profession are very important. The purpose of this research is; to investigate the metaphorical perceptions that teachers have regarding the concept of the teaching profession and to compare the metaphorical perceptions of classroom teachers and branch teachers. The research is a qualitative study and the data are examined by content analysis. As a data collection tool, 60 teachers were told to "Teaching profession...... it's like. Because......" they were asked 3 times to complete the sentence. According to the results of the study; the number of metaphors produced by teachers is 155 and all are valid. The created metaphors are collected in 5 different categories. It was observed that the classroom teachers and branch teachers who participated in the study produced metaphors mostly in the category of "Expressions Related to An Object." Teachers in the study group perceive the teaching profession most with the metaphors of "parenting, motherhood and candles." According to the findings of the study; When comparing metaphorical perceptions of classroom teachers and branch teachers in all categories, it was determined that classroom teachers produced more metaphors than branch teachers, while branch teachers could not produce little or no metaphors.


2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mehmet Saglam ◽  
◽  
Ipek Ozbay Karlıdag ◽  
Rabia Betul Korkmaz ◽  
◽  
...  

This study aims to examine the opinions of preschool teachers on guidance and psychological counseling services. The method of the study is qualitative research design. The research data were collected via the interviews with the preschool teachers. The study group of the research consists of 24 preschool teachers working in Yozgat city in Turkey. Content analysis was made use of while forming the finding part. The results of the study display that the preschool teachers perceive guidance and psychological counseling services as "guiding," "informing," “assistance” and "cooperation" services. Also, parents and teachers also need the guidance teacher mostly in situations related to behavioral problems, special needs students, adaptation problems, and family-related problems. It was observed that preschool teachers perceived that guidance and psychological counseling services should be in preschool education institutions but that the guidance services they received were not sufficient.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
XiaoTian Ma ◽  
WeiYa Zhang ◽  
Zheng Xu

Abstract Background There are more and more complex consolidated proximal fractures, and the postoperative effect is not very satisfactory. Therefore, we propose a surgical method and evaluate its effect. Method A total of 77 patients with complicated proximal humeral fractures who underwent surgical treatment in the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University from June 2015 to January 2019 were collected. Among them, the internodal groove medial support plate assisted reduction and fixation technique and the lateral locking plate were used. A total of 15 cases of complicated proximal humeral fractures were used as the study group, and 62 patients with the same type of proximal humeral fractures treated with traditional reduction methods and internal fixation with lateral locking plates during the same period were used as the control group.The operation time of the two groups; intraoperative blood loss; number of effective intraoperative fluoroscopy; postoperative humeral neck shaft angle loss after reduction; postoperative shoulder joint Constant-Murley score; upper limb function DASH score and postoperative complications were retrospectively reviewed comparative analysis. Results The number of effective intraoperative fluoroscopy was (6.18±1.869) times in the control group, more than (3.93±1.387) times in the study group, and the difference between the two was statistically significant (P<0.05);The operation time of the study group was longer than that of the control group, and the intraoperative blood loss of the study group was more than that of the control group, but the difference between the two was not statistically significant (P>0.05).In the first 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery, in terms of imaging measurement, the loss angle after reduction of the humeral neck shaft angle in the control group and the study group increased with the increase in postoperative time. There was no significant difference in the lost angle after reduction of the humeral neck shaft angle between the two groups at month and 3 months (P>0.05).At the 6th and 12th months after surgery, the lost angle after reduction of the humeral neck shaft angle in the study group was smaller than that in the control group, and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05).For the recovery of shoulder joint function after surgery, the Constant-Murley score of the shoulder joint and the DASH score of upper limb function of the control group and the study group increased with the increase of postoperative time, while the Constant score and DASH score of the two groups were 1 after surgery. There was no significant difference at months, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months (P>0.05). Conclusion The anteromedial support plate assisted reduction of the internodal groove can be used as a single locking plate for the treatment of complex proximal humeral fractures with medial column instability. It is an option when reduction is difficult or it is difficult to maintain stable reduction, which improves the quality of reduction and reduces surgery. Loss of posterior fracture reduction.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Chenchen Liu ◽  
Puying Wei ◽  
Jun Li

Abstract Objectives To observe and compare the difference in retinal thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) between patients with high myopia (HM) during the third trimester of pregnancy and age-matched HM non-pregnant women. Methods A case-control study. A total of 39 eyes from 39 HM women in the third trimester (study group) and 50 eyes of 50 age-matched non-pregnant women with HM (control group) were included. All subjects underwent SD-OCT examination. The built-in software was used to measure the retinal thickness in macular region. The data from two groups were compared using independent-samples t test. Results Among the 89 subjects in this study, the mean gestational age of the study group was 35.09 ± 2.44 weeks, and the average age was 32.24 ± 3.75 years. The average age of the control group was 34.04 ± 7.19 years old. Compared with the control group, the average thickness of parafoveal area, and the average thickness of parafoveal superior, inferior, temporal quadrants of the superficial retina and the average thickness of the foveal and parafoveal of the superficial retina were significantly decreased in the study group (P < 0.05). Compared with the control group, the average thickness of all quadrants of the retina in the parafoveal area except the nasal quadrant were significantly decreased in the study group (P < 0.05). Conclusions In this observational study, the retinal thickness of patients with high myopia during the third trimester of pregnancy was thinner than that of non-pregnant women with age-matched high myopia.


Author(s):  
Trevor Jain ◽  
Aaron Sibley ◽  
Henrik Stryhn ◽  
Adam Lund ◽  
Ives Hubloue

Abstract Introduction: The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has the potential to change the situational awareness of medical incident commanders’ (ICs’) scene assessment of mass gatherings. Mass gatherings occur frequently and the potential for injury at these events is considered higher than the general population. These events have generated mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) in the past. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in scene assessment using paramedic students during a mass-gathering event (MGE). Methods: This study was conducted in two phases. Phase One consisted of validation of the videos and accompanying data collection tool. Phase One was completed by 11 experienced paramedics from a provincial Emergency Medical Services (EMS) service. Phase Two was a randomized comparison with 47 paramedic students from the Holland College Paramedicine Program (Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada) of the two scene assessment systems. For Phase Two, the paramedic students were randomized into a UAV or a SP group. The data collection tool consisted of two board categories: primary importance with 20 variables and secondary importance with 25 variables. After a brief narrative, participants were either shown UAV footage or the ground footage depending on their study group. After completion of the videos, study participants completed the data collection tool. Results: The Phase One validation showed good consensus in answers to most questions (average 79%; range 55%-100%). For Phase Two, a Fisher’s exact test was used to compare each variable from the UAV and SP groups using a P value of .05. Phase Two demonstrated a significant difference between the SP and UAV groups in four of 20 primary variables. Additionally, significant differences were found for seven out of 25 secondary variables. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the accurate, safe, and feasible use of a UAV as a tool for scene assessment by paramedic students at an MGE. No observed statistical difference was noted in a majority of both primary and secondary variables using a UAV for scene assessment versus SP.


2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (3) ◽  
pp. 39-47
Author(s):  
A. S. Nikitin ◽  
I. B. Aleynikova

The study objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of anti‑adhesion gel by using in carpal tunnel syndrome surgery.Materials and methods. A prospective study was carried out among 55 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome. All patients were underwent open decompression of the carpal tunnel. Patients of study group (n = 25) got an carboxymethylcellu‑ lose anti‑adhesion gel, which was applied to the nerve before suturing the wound. Patients from control group (n = 30) were underwent surgery without using an anti‑adhesive gel. Before surgery, all patients underwent a clinical neurological examination with an assessment of symptoms according to the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire, which includes 2 scales: the scale and the functional status scale. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire was reevaluated 2.5 years after surgery.Results. In study group the mean symptom severity decreased by 59.5 %, functional status improved by 55.1 %, in control group these indicators were 48.3 and 47.6 %. Clinical relapse of the disease was noted in 8 % of patients of study group and in 20 % of patients of control group.Conclusion. Intraoperative using of an anti‑adhesion gel allows to reduce the frequency of recurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome after surgical decompression.


2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Raheel Sanad ◽  
Shimaa Mohamed Refaat ◽  
Faten Hassan Abdelazeim ◽  
Bassant Meligy

Abstract Background Cough assist devices play an important role with patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), particularly those with neuromuscular diseases which had abnormal muscle tone. It was previously thought to be the main technique for improving cough efficacy, which aids in weaning from mechanical ventilation and improves patient outcomes. So, we selected randomly the odd numbers from Abo El-Reesh hospital records, and 30 children of both sexes with pneumonia were selected, aged from 6 months to 3 years, who were selected from intensive care unit: fifteen children were the control group, who received the selected physical therapy program (postural drainage, percussion and resist diaphragm), and another fifteen children were the study group, who received previous physical therapy program, which was selected, and cough assist device. Results This study revealed the effect of cough assist device on blood gasses and the period of mechanical ventilator on children with pneumonia and general hypotonia. There was a significant decrease in pH, PaCO2, and HCO3 post treatment compared with that pretreatment in the study and control groups (p < 0.05). The percentage of decrease in pH, PaCO2, and HCO3 in study group A were 0.4, 38.26, and 30.28% respectively while that in the control group were 0.4, 32.56, and 25.48% for pH, PaCO2, and HCO3 respectively. There was a significant increase in PaO2 post treatment compared with that pretreatment in the study and control groups (p < 0.001). The percentage of increase in PaO2 in the study group was 32.13% and that in control group was 30.09%. There was no significant difference in pH, PaCO2, and HCO3 between both groups pre-treatment (p ˃ 0.05). Also, there was no significant difference between groups post treatment (p ˃ 0.05). The median (IQR) period of mechanical ventilation in the study group was 5 (7, 4) days while that in control group was 8 (18, 5) days. There was a significant decrease in period of mechanical ventilator of the study group compared with that of control group (p = 0.03). Conclusion The cough assist device and physical therapy program were selected for children in the intensive care unit which have the same effect on arterial blood gasses as they optimize pH, PO2, PCO2, and HCO3, but the cough assist device helps in accelerating weaning of mechanical ventilator so as decrease the period of mechanical ventilator.


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