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Alice J. Darling ◽  
Hailey M. Harris ◽  
Gregory E. Zemtsov ◽  
Maria Small ◽  
Matthew R. Grace ◽  

Objective We sought to characterize the incidence and risk factors associated with developing maternal morbidity following preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Study Design Retrospective case–control study of patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes at a single institution from 2013 to 2019 admitted at ≥23 weeks gestational age. The primary outcome was a composite of maternal morbidity which included: death, sepsis, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, acute kidney injury, postpartum dilation and curettage, postpartum hysterectomy, venous thromboembolism, postpartum hemorrhage, postpartum wound complication, postpartum endometritis, pelvic abscess, postpartum pneumonia, readmission, and/or need for blood transfusion were compared with patients without above morbidities. Severe morbidity was defined as: death, ICU admission, venous thromboembolism, acute kidney injury, postpartum hysterectomy, sepsis, and/or transfusion >2 units. Demographics, antenatal, and delivery characteristics were compared between patients with and without maternal morbidity. Bivariate statistics and regression models were used to compare outcomes and calculate adjusted odd ratios. Results Of 361 included patients, 64 patients (17.7%) experienced maternal morbidity and nine (2.5%) had severe morbidity. Patients who experienced maternal morbidity were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to be older, have private insurance, have BMI ≥40, have chorioamnionitis at delivery, and undergo cesarean or operative vaginal delivery when compared with patients who did not experience morbidity. After controlling for confounders, cesarean delivery (aOR 2.38, 95% CI[1.30,4.39]), body mass index ≥40 at admission (aOR 2.54, 95% CI[1.12,5.79]), private insurance (aOR 3.08, 95% CI[1.54,6.16]), and tobacco use (aOR 3.43, 95% CI[1.58,7.48]) were associated with increased odds of maternal morbidity. Conclusion In this cohort, maternal morbidity occurred in 17.7% of patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. Private insurance, body mass index ≥40, tobacco use, and cesarean delivery were associated with higher odds of morbidity. These data can be used in counseling and to advocate for smoking cessation. Key Points

Swathi Sangli ◽  
Misbah Baqir ◽  
Jay Ryu

Background: The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of in-hospital mortality among patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH).Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 89 patients hospitalized for DAH at our institution. 49 patients who died during hospitalization and 40 patients who survived were compared. We reviewed their clinical course, radiologic and pathologic findings, along with medical management. We then performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify the risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality.Results: We identified 12 factors to be associated with mortality when comparing survivor versus non-survivor cohorts: smoking (67 versus 42%, p=0.02), malignancy (17 versus 49%, p=0.002), interstitial lung disease (0 versus 14%, p=0.01), liver failure (2 versus 28%, p=0.001), autoimmune diseases (40 versus 8%, p=0.0006), thrombocytopenia (7 versus 71%, p<0.0001), ICU admission (57 versus 85%, p=0.004), mean ICU stay (p=0.4), steroid use (90 versus 63%, p=0.003), plasma exchange (15 versus 0 %, p=0.005), mechanical ventilation (37 versus 75%, p=0.0007) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 versus 77%, p<0.0001). On multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia (p<0.0001) and ARDS (p=0.0013) were associated with higher odds of mortality in DAH while steroid use (p=0.0004) was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality in patients with DAH.Conclusions: In DAH, thrombocytopenia and ARDS were predictors of in-hospital mortality whereas the use of steroid was associated with a more favorable prognosis. 

2021 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Ahmad Khanijahani ◽  
Shabnam Iezadi ◽  
Kamal Gholipour ◽  
Saber Azami-Aghdash ◽  
Deniz Naghibi

Abstract Background Preliminary evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic shows the presence of health disparities, especially in terms of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to systematically review the evidence on the association of racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status (SES) with health outcomes and access to healthcare services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We retrieved published evidence from late December 2019 through March 1, 2021. The target population was the population of the countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The exposures were defined as belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups and/or low SES. The primary outcomes of interest include (1) death from COVID-19, (2) COVID-19 incidence/infection, (3) COVID-19 hospitalization, (4) ICU admission, (5) need for mechanical ventilation, (6) confirmed diagnosis, and (7) access to testing. We systematically synthesized the findings from different studies and provided a narrative explanation of the results. Results After removing the duplicate results and screening for relevant titles and abstracts, 77 studies were selected for full-text review. Finally, 52 studies were included in the review. The majority of the studies were from the United States (37 studies). Despite the significant incongruity among the studies, most of them showed that racial/ethnic minority groups had higher risks of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization, confirmed diagnosis, and death. Additionally, most of the studies cited factors such as low level of education, poverty, poor housing conditions, low household income, speaking in a language other than the national language in a country, and living in overcrowded households as risk factors of COVID-19 incidence/infection, death, and confirmed diagnosis. However, findings in terms of the association of lack of health insurance coverage and unemployment with the outcome measures as well as the association of requiring mechanical ventilation, ICU admission, and access to testing for COVID-19 with race/ethnicity were limited and inconsistent. Conclusion It is evident that racial/ethnic minority groups and those from low SES are more vulnerable to COVID-19; therefore, public health policymakers, practitioners, and clinicians should be aware of these inequalities and strive to narrow the gap by focusing on vulnerable populations. This systematic review also revealed a major incongruity in the definition of the racial/ethnic minority groups and SES among the studies. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42020190105.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Aude Gibelin ◽  
Guillaume Dumas ◽  
Sandrine Valade ◽  
Marc Pineton de Chambrun ◽  
François Bagate ◽  

Abstract Rationale Acute respiratory failure (ARF) in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with known or de novo small-vessel vasculitis (Svv) may be secondary to the underlying immune disease or to other causes. Early identification of the cause of ARF is essential to initiate the most appropriate treatment in a timely fashion. Methods A retrospective multicenter study in 10 French ICUs from January 2007 to January 2018 to assess the clinical presentation, main causes and outcome of ARF associated with Svv, and to identify variables associated with non-immune etiology of ARF in patients with known Svv. Results During the study period, 121 patients [62 (50–75) years; 62% male; median SAPSII and SOFA scores 39 (27–52) and 6 (4–8), respectively] were analyzed. An immune cause was identified in 67 (55%), and a non-immune cause in 54 (45%) patients. ARF was associated with several causes in 43% (n  = 52) of cases. The main immune cause was diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) (n  = 47, 39%), whereas the main non-immune cause was pulmonary infection (n  = 35, 29%). The crude 90-day and 1-year mortality were higher in patients with non-immune ARF, as compared with their counterparts (32% and 38% vs. 15% and 20%, respectively; both p  = 0.03), but was marginally significantly higher after adjusted analysis in a Cox model (p  = 0.053). Among patients with a known Svv (n  = 70), immunosuppression [OR 9.41 (1.52–58.3); p  = 0.016], and a low vasculitis activity score [0.84 (0.77–0.93)] were independently associated with a non-immune cause, after adjustment for the time from disease onset to ARF, time from respiratory symptoms to ICU admission, and severe renal failure. Conclusions An extensive diagnosis workup is mandatory in ARF revealing or complicating Svv. Non-immune causes are involved in 43% of cases, and their short and mid-term prognosis may be poorer than those of immune ARF. Readily identified predictive factors of a non-immune cause could help avoiding unnecessary immunosuppressive therapies.

2021 ◽  
pp. respcare.09108
Caroline Espersen ◽  
Elke Platz ◽  
Kristoffer Grundtvig Skaarup ◽  
Mats Christian Højbjerg Lassen ◽  
Jannie Nørgaard Lind ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 1837
Arti Muley ◽  
Sona Mitra ◽  
Ashish Bavishi ◽  
Hema Bhojani ◽  
Geetika Patel ◽  

Background: Many vaccines have been developed, approved and administered against the COVID-19. Phase 2 and 3 trials have proved the safety and tolerability of these. This study was conducted to assess effect of the vaccines on morbidity and mortality due to postvaccination new COVID-19 infection.Methods: This was an observational, retrospective cohort study. The patients admitted with COVID-19 from 1st April 2021 till 30th April 2021 who were willing to participate were included. All the patients were telephonically contacted post discharge and enquired regarding history of vaccination, events during hospitalization and outcome. The data so collected was analysed to compare the morbidity (oxygen requirement, need of ICU admission and need of BiPAP or invasive ventilation) and mortality between vaccinated and nonvaccinated COVID-19 patients and relation of time elapsed post vaccination with morbidity and mortality.Results: Total 431 patients were included. There was significant difference between the two groups in terms of need for ICU admission (OR 0.503; CI 0.30-0.82, p=0.008) as well as requirement of BiPAP or invasive ventilation (OR 0.57; CI 0.33-0.98, p=0.05). Mortality was significantly less in the vaccinated group; OR 0.48 (0.24-0.95), p=0.04). Ten patients had received both doses. Only one required ICU while none of them required invasive ventilation and none expired.Conclusions: COVID-19 vaccine gives significant protection against COVID-19 infection related ICU admission, need of mechanical ventilation and mortality even after single dose. Two doses of vaccine may afford better protection against the disease.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260371
Shabnam Iezadi ◽  
Kamal Gholipour ◽  
Saber Azami-Aghdash ◽  
Akbar Ghiasi ◽  
Aziz Rezapour ◽  

Non-Pharmaceutical Public Health Interventions (NPHIs) have been used by different countries to control the spread of the COVID-19. Despite available evidence regarding the effectiveness of NPHSs, there is still no consensus about how policymakers can trust these results. Studies on the effectiveness of NPHSs are single studies conducted in specific communities. Therefore, they cannot individually prove if these interventions have been effective in reducing the spread of the infection and its adverse health outcomes. In this systematic review, we aimed to examine the effects of NPHIs on the COVID-19 case growth rate, death growth rate, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission, and reproduction number in countries, where NPHIs have been implemented. We searched relevant electronic databases, including Medline (via PubMed), Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, etc. from late December 2019 to February 1, 2021. The key terms were primarily drawn from Medical Subject Heading (MeSh and Emtree), literature review, and opinions of experts. Peer-reviewed quasi-experimental studies were included in the review. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42020186855. Interventions were NPHIs categorized as lockdown, stay-at-home orders, social distancing, and other interventions (mask-wearing, contact tracing, and school closure). We used PRISMA 2020 guidance for abstracting the data and used Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Practice (EPOC) Risk of Bias Tool for quality appraisal of the studies. Hartung-Knapp-Sidik-Jonkman random-effects model was performed. Main outcomes included COVID-19 case growth rate (percentage daily changes), COVID-19 mortality growth rate (percentage daily changes), COVID-19 ICU admission (percentage daily changes), and COVID-19 reproduction number changes. Our search strategies in major databases yielded 12,523 results, which decreased to 7,540 articles after eliminating duplicates. Finally, 35 articles qualified to be included in the systematic review among which 23 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Although studies were from both low-income and high-income countries, the majority of them were from the United States (13 studies) and China (five studies). Results of the meta-analysis showed that adoption of NPHIs has resulted in a 4.68% (95% CI, -6.94 to -2.78) decrease in daily case growth rates, 4.8% (95 CI, -8.34 to -1.40) decrease in daily death growth rates, 1.90 (95% CI, -2.23 to -1.58) decrease in the COVID-19 reproduction number, and 16.5% (95% CI, -19.68 to -13.32) decrease in COVID-19 daily ICU admission. A few studies showed that, early enforcement of lockdown, when the incidence rate is not high, contributed to a shorter duration of lockdown and a lower increase of the case growth rate in the post-lockdown era. The majority of NPHIs had positive effects on restraining the COVID-19 spread. With the problems that remain regarding universal access to vaccines and their effectiveness and considering the drastic impact of the nationwide lockdown and other harsh restrictions on the economy and people’s life, such interventions should be mitigated by adopting other NPHIs such as mass mask-wearing, patient/suspected case isolation strategies, and contact tracing. Studies need to address the impact of NPHIs on the population’s other health problems than COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 271 ◽  
pp. 7-13
Stephen E Ranney ◽  
Tim H Lee ◽  
Peter W Callas ◽  
Lloyd Patashnik ◽  
Gary C An ◽  

2021 ◽  
Giuliana Scarpati ◽  
Daniela Baldassarre ◽  
Graziella Lacava ◽  
Filomena Oliva ◽  
Gabriele Pascale ◽  

Rationale Krebs von den Lungen 6 (KL-6) is a high molecular weight mucin-like glycoprotein produced by type II pneumocytes and bronchial epithelial cells. Elevated circulating levels of KL-6 may denote disorder of the alveolar epithelial lining. Objective Aim of this study was to verify if KL-6 values may help to risk stratify and triage severe COVID-19 patients. Methods We performed a retrospective prognostic study on 110 COVID-19 ICU patients, evaluating the predictive role of KL-6 for mortality. Measurements and Main Results The study sample was divided in two groups related according to the median KL-6 value [Group A (KL-6 lower than the log-transformed median (6.73)) and Group B (KL-6 higher than the log-transformed median)]. In both linear and logistic multivariate analyses, ratio of arterial partial pressure of oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (P/F) was significantly and inversely related to KL-6. Death rate was higher in group B than in group A (80.3 versus 45.9%) (p<0.001), Accordingly, the Cox regression analysis showed a significant prognostic role of KL-6 on mortality in the whole sample as well as in the subgroup with SOFA lower than its median value. Conclusions At ICU admission, KL-6 serum level was significantly lower in the survivors group. Our findings shown that, in severe COVID19 patients, elevated KL-6 was strongly associated with mortality in ICU.

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