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2022 ◽  
Vol 271 ◽  
pp. 7-13
Stephen E Ranney ◽  
Tim H Lee ◽  
Peter W Callas ◽  
Lloyd Patashnik ◽  
Gary C An ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jing Lian Suah ◽  
Masliyana Husin ◽  
Peter Seah Keng Tok ◽  
Boon Hwa Tng ◽  
Thevesh Thevananthan ◽  

Evaluation of vaccine effectiveness over time against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is important. Evidence on effectiveness over time for the CoronaVac vaccine is lacking despite its widespread use globally. In Malaysia, a diverse set-up of COVID-19 vaccines was rolled out nationwide, and the waning of vaccine protection is a concern. We aimed to investigate and compare waning vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infections, COVID-19 related ICU admission and COVID-19 related deaths for BNT162b2 and CoronaVac vaccines. In this observational study, we consolidated nationally representative data on COVID-19 vaccination and patients′ outcomes. Data on all confirmed COVID-19 cases from 1 to 30 September 2021 were used to compare vaccine effectiveness between the ′early′ group (fully vaccinated in April to June 2021) and the ′late′ group (fully vaccinated in Jul to Aug 2021). We used a negative binomial regression model to estimate vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infections for both ′early′ and ′late′ groups, by comparing the rates of infection for individuals vaccinated in the two different periods relative to the unvaccinated. Among confirmed COVID-19 cases, we used logistic regression to estimate and compare vaccine effectiveness against ICU admission and deaths between the two different periods. For BNT162b2, vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infections declined from 90.8% (95% CI 89.4, 92.0) in the late group to 79.1% (95% CI 75.8, 81.9) in the late group. Vaccine effectiveness for BNT162b2 against ICU admission and deaths were comparable between the two different periods. For CoronaVac, vaccine effectiveness waned against COVID-19 infections from 74.4% in the late group (95% CI 209 70.4, 77.8) to 30.0% (95% CI 18.4, 39.9) in the early group. It also declined significantly against ICU admission, dropping from 56.1% (95% CI 51.4, 60.2) to 29.9% (95% CI 13.9, 43.0). For deaths, however, CoronaVac′s effectiveness did not wane after three to five months of full vaccination. Vaccine effectiveness against COVID-19 infections waned after three to five months of full vaccination for both BNT162b2 and CoronaVac in Malaysia. Additionally, for CoronaVac, protection against ICU admission declined as well. Evidence on vaccine effectiveness over time informs evolving policy decisions on vaccination.

Health Scope ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Maryam Shirvani Shiri ◽  
Sara Emamgholipour ◽  
Rajabali Daroudi ◽  
Maryam Tatary ◽  
Zohreh Kazemi ◽  

Background: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide and in Iran, which imposes a heavy financial burden both on patient’s family and society. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the direct medical costs of inpatients with IHD and its influencing factors in Iran in 2020. Methods: The sample of this cross-sectional study included 41,357 patients with IHD selected from the hospital information system (HIS) of the Iran Health Insurance Organization from August 23, 2019, to June 20, 2020. The study used the claims data of these patients, which included their demographics, length of stay (LOS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, hospital accreditation grade, hospital ownership type, and patient discharge status. The multiple linear regression model was employed to evaluate the relationship between hospitalization costs and the associated factors. All statistical tests were conducted at the significance level of P < 0.05 using the R 3.6.3 software. Results: The mean age of patients was 63.95 ± 12.63 years old, and most of them were male (54.4%). The mean hospitalization cost per patient and per day was 586.42 ± 472.51 USD and 103.64 ± 100.29 USD, respectively. Moreover, the mean LOS was 4.92 days. Drugs and consumable medical supplies, as well as nursing and hoteling services, had the highest shares of hospitalization costs (29.54% and 29.4%, respectively). The hospitalization costs of patients with IHD were higher among men (β = 1.24), age 61 - 70 years (β = 1.38), LOS ≥ 5 (β = 2.92), ICU admission (β = 1.62), Iranian health fund (β = 1.21), and private hospitals (β = 1.91). Top-grade and first-grade hospitals had higher costs compared to grade 2 (β = 0.67), grade 3 (β = 0.35), and grade 4 (β = 0.72) hospitals. Deceased patients had also higher costs than patients with complete recovery (β = 0.63), relative recovery (β = 0.59), follow-up (β = 0.51), transfer to other medical centers (β = 0.44), and discharge against medical advice (DAMA) (β = 0.62). Conclusions: According to the results, shortening the LOS and controlling the high costs of drugs and consumable medical supplies are among the main strategies to reduce high hospitalization costs.

2022 ◽  
Flavio Azevedo Figueiredo ◽  
Lucas Emanuel Ferreira Ramos ◽  
Rafael Tavares Silva ◽  
Magda Carvalho Pires ◽  
Daniela Ponce ◽  

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with COVID–19 and the need for kidney replacement therapy (KRT) is considered an indicator of disease severity. This study aimed to develop a prognostic score for predicting the need for KRT in hospitalized COVID–19 patients. Methods: This study is part of the multicentre cohort, the Brazilian COVID–19 Registry. A total of 5,212 adult COVID–19 patients were included between March/2020 and September/2020. We evaluated four categories of predictor variables: (1) demographic data; (2) comorbidities and conditions at admission; (3) laboratory exams within 24 h; and (4) the need for mechanical ventilation at any time during hospitalization. Variable selection was performed using generalized additive models (GAM) and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression was used for score derivation. The accuracy was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCROC). Risk groups were proposed based on predicted probabilities: non-high (up to 14.9%), high (15.0 to 49.9%), and very high risk (≥ 50.0%). Results: The median age of the model–derivation cohort was 59 (IQR 47–70) years, 54.5% were men, 34.3% required ICU admission, 20.9% evolved with AKI, 9.3% required KRT, and 15.1% died during hospitalization. The validation cohort had similar age, sex, ICU admission, AKI, required KRT distribution and in–hospital mortality. Thirty–two variables were tested and four important predictors of the need for KRT during hospitalization were identified using GAM: need for mechanical ventilation, male gender, higher creatinine at admission, and diabetes. The MMCD score had excellent discrimination in derivation (AUROC = 0.929; 95% CI 0.918–0.939) and validation (AUROC = 0.927; 95% CI 0.911–0.941) cohorts an good overall performance in both cohorts (Brier score: 0.057 and 0.056, respectively). The score is implemented in a freely available online risk calculator ( Conclusion: The use of the MMCD score to predict the need for KRT may assist healthcare workers in identifying hospitalized COVID–19 patients who may require more intensive monitoring, and can be useful for resource allocation.

2022 ◽  
Michael E Tang ◽  
Thaidra Gaufin ◽  
Ryan Anson ◽  
Wenhong Zhu ◽  
William C Mathews ◽  

Background We investigated the effect of HIV on COVID-19 outcomes with attention to selection bias due to differential testing and to comorbidity burden. Methods Retrospective cohort analysis using four hierarchical outcomes: positive SARS-CoV-2 test, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and hospital mortality. The effect of HIV status was assessed using traditional covariate-adjusted, inverse probability weighted (IPW) analysis based on covariate distributions for testing bias (testing IPWs), HIV infection status (HIV IPWs), and combined models. Among PWH, we evaluated whether CD4 count and HIV plasma viral load (pVL) discriminated between those who did or did not develop study outcomes using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Between March and November 2020, 63,319 people were receiving primary care services at UCSD, of whom 4,017 were people living with HIV (PWH). PWH had 2.1 times the odds of a positive SARS-CoV-2 test compared to those without HIV after weighting for potential testing bias, comorbidity burden, and HIV-IPW (95% CI 1.6-2.8). Relative to persons without HIV, PWH did not have an increased rate of COVID-19 hospitalization after controlling for comorbidities and testing bias [adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR): 0.5, 95% CI: 0.1-1.4]. PWH had neither a different rate of ICU admission (aIRR:1.08, 95% CI; 0.31-3.80) nor in-hospital death (aIRR:0.92, 95% CI; 0.08-10.94) in any examined model. Neither CD4 count nor pVL predicted any of the hierarchical outcomes among PWH. Conclusions PWH have a higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis but similar outcomes compared to those without HIV.

2022 ◽  
Zahedin Kheyri ◽  
Sepehr Metanat ◽  
Hadiseh Hosamirudsari ◽  
Samaneh Akbarpour ◽  
Maryam Shojaei ◽  

Several months have passed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple characteristics have been proposed as prognostic factors so far. This study aims to provide evidence on the association of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at the hospitalization time and three desired outcomes (mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and intensive care unit [ICU] admission). We designed a single-centre retrospective observational study in Baharloo Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from 20 February to 19 April 2020. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis via rt-PCR or chest CT imaging were included. Demographic and clinical data were obtained. The sample was divided into three groups, using tertile boundaries of initial NLR. The differences in mortality, comorbidities, hospitalization duration, drug administration, and ICU admission between these three groups were investigated. The identified confounding factors were adjusted to calculate the odds ratio of death, ICU admission, and prolonged hospitalization. Nine hundred sixty-three patients were included. In total, 151 and 212 participants experienced mortality and ICU admission, respectively. In multivariate logistic regression models, the adjusted odds ratio for mortality event in the second and third tertile of initial NLR after full adjustment were 1.89 (95% CI:1.07-3.32) and 2.57 (95% CI:1.48-4.43) and for ICU admission were 1.85 (95% CI:1.14-3.01) and 2.88 (95% CI:1.79-4.61), respectively. The optimal cut-off value of the initial NLR for predicting mortality was 4.27. Initial NLR can predict mortality and ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. Further investigations for curating the calculated cut-off can propose initial NLR as an indicator of poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients.

2022 ◽  
Joseph A Lewnard ◽  
Vennis X Hong ◽  
Manish M Patel ◽  
Rebecca Kahn ◽  
Marc Lipsitch ◽  

Background: The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly achieved global dissemination, accounting for most infections in the United States by December 2021. Risk of severe outcomes associated with Omicron infections, as compared to earlier SARS-CoV-2 variants, remains unclear. Methods: We analyzed clinical and epidemiologic data from cases testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California healthcare system from November 30, 2021 to January 1, 2022, using S gene target failure (SGTF) as assessed by the ThermoFisher TaqPath ComboKit assay as a proxy for Omicron infection. We fit Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to any hospital admission and hospital admissions associated with new-onset respiratory symptoms, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality among cases with Omicron and Delta (non-SGTF) variant infections. We fit parametric competing risk models to compare lengths of hospital stay among admitted cases with Omicron and Delta variant infections. Results: Our analyses included 52,297 cases with SGTF (Omicron) and 16,982 cases with non-SGTF (Delta [B.1.617.2]) infections, respectively. Hospital admissions occurred among 235 (0.5%) and 222 (1.3%) of cases with Omicron and Delta variant infections, respectively. Among cases first tested in outpatient settings, the adjusted hazard ratios for any subsequent hospital admission and symptomatic hospital admission associated with Omicron variant infection were 0.48 (0.36-0.64) and 0.47 (0.35-0.62), respectively. Rates of ICU admission and mortality after an outpatient positive test were 0.26 (0.10-0.73) and 0.09 (0.01-0.75) fold as high among cases with Omicron variant infection as compared to cases with Delta variant infection. Zero cases with Omicron variant infection received mechanical ventilation, as compared to 11 cases with Delta variant infections throughout the period of follow-up (two-sided p<0.001). Median duration of hospital stay was 3.4 (2.8-4.1) days shorter for hospitalized cases with Omicron variant infections as compared to hospitalized patients with Delta variant infections, reflecting a 69.6% (64.0-74.5%) reduction in hospital length of stay. Conclusions: During a period with mixed Delta and Omicron variant circulation, SARS-CoV-2 infections with presumed Omicron variant infection were associated with substantially reduced risk of severe clinical endpoints and shorter durations of hospital stay.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Laura Pietiläinen ◽  
Minna Bäcklund ◽  
Johanna Hästbacka ◽  
Matti Reinikainen

Abstract Background Poor premorbid functional status (PFS) is associated with mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients aged 80 years or older. In the subgroup of very old ICU patients, the ability to recover from critical illness varies irrespective of age. To assess the predictive ability of PFS also among the patients aged 85 or older we set out the current study. Methods In this nationwide observational registry study based on the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database, we analysed data of patients aged 85 years or over treated in ICUs between May 2012 and December 2015. We defined PFS as good for patients who had been independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs and as poor for those who were dependent on help or unable to climb stairs. To assess patients’ functional outcome one year after ICU admission, we created a functional status score (FSS) based on how many out of five physical activities (getting out of bed, moving indoors, dressing, climbing stairs, and walking 400 m) the patient could manage. We also assessed the patients’ ability to return to their previous type of accommodation. Results Overall, 2037 (3.3% of all adult ICU patients) patients were 85 years old or older. The average age of the study population was 87 years. Data on PFS were available for 1446 (71.0%) patients (good for 48.8% and poor for 51.2%). The one-year mortalities of patients with good and those with poor PFS were 29.2% and 50.1%, respectively, p < 0.001. Poor PFS increased the probability of death within 12 months, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68–2.76, p < 0.001. For 69.5% of survivors, the FSS one year after ICU admission was unchanged or higher than their premorbid FSS and 84.2% of patients living at home before ICU admission still lived at home. Conclusions Poor PFS doubled the odds of death within one year. For most survivors, functional status was comparable to the premorbid status.

2022 ◽  
pp. jech-2021-218278
Chioma Adanma Nwaru ◽  
Ailiana Santosa ◽  
Stefan Franzén ◽  
Fredrik Nyberg

BackgroundResearch on occupation and risk of COVID-19 among foreign-born workers is lacking. We investigated whether working in essential occupations was associated with COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation and intensive care unit (ICU) admission and whether foreign-born workers in similar occupations as Swedish-born individuals had a higher risk of the studied outcomes.MethodsOccupational data (2018–2019) of 326 052 employees (20–65 years) who were resident in Sweden as of 1 January 2020 were linked to COVID-19 data registered from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. We analysed the risk of COVID-19 outcomes in different occupational groups and in four immigrant/occupation intersectional groups using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustments for sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics and pre-existing comorbidities.ResultsWe identified 29797, 1069 and 152 cases of COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisations and ICU admissions, respectively, in our cohort. Workers in essential occupations had an elevated risk of COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation, and ICU admissions. Healthcare workers had a higher risk of all the outcomes compared with other essential workers. Relative to Swedish-born workers in non-essential occupations, foreign-born workers in essential occupations had 1.85 (95% CI 1.78 to 1.93), 3.80 (95% CI 3.17 to 4.55) and 3.79 (95% CI 2.33 to 6.14) times higher risk of COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalisation and ICU admission, respectively. The corresponding risks among Swedish-born workers in essential occupations were 1.44 (95% CI 1.40 to 1.49), 1.30 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.56) and 1.46 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.38).ConclusionOccupation was associated with COVID-19 outcomes and contributed to the burden of COVID-19 among foreign-born individuals in this study.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Keke Song ◽  
Tingting Yang ◽  
Wei Gao

Abstract Background Serum chloride (Cl−) is one of the most essential extracellular anions. Based on emerging evidence obtained from patients with kidney or heart disease, hypochloremia has been recognized as an independent predictor of mortality. Nevertheless, excessive Cl− can also cause death in severely ill patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between hyperchloremia and high mortality rate in patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Methods We enrolled 2131 patients from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care III database version 1.4 (MIMIC-III v1.4) from 2001 to 2012. Selected SICU patients were more than 18 years old and survived more than 72 h. A serum Cl− level ≥ 108 mEq/L was defined as hyperchloremia. Clinical and laboratory variables were compared between hyperchloremia (n = 664) at 72 h post-ICU admission and no hyperchloremia (n = 1467). The Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (Lowess) approach was utilized to investigate the correlation between serum Cl- and the thirty-day mortality rate. The Cox proportional-hazards model was employed to investigate whether serum chlorine at 72 h post-ICU admission was independently related to in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes. Kaplan-Meier curve of thirty-day and ninety-day mortality and serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission was further constructed. Furthermore, we performed subgroup analyses to investigate the relationship between serum Cl− at 72 h post-ICU admission and the thirty-day mortality from all causes. Results A J-shaped correlation was observed, indicating that hyperchloremia was linked to an elevated risk of thirty-day mortality from all causes. In the multivariate analyses, it was established that hyperchloremia remained a valuable predictor of in-hospital, thirty-day and ninety-day mortality from all causes; with adjusted hazard ratios (95% CIs) for hyperchloremia of 1.35 (1.02 ~ 1.77), 1.67 (1.28 ~ 2.19), and 1.39 (1.12 ~ 1.73), respectively. In subgroup analysis, we observed hyperchloremia had a significant interaction with AKI (P for interaction: 0.017), but there were no interactions with coronary heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus (P for interaction: 0.418, 0.157, 0.103, respectively). Conclusion Hyperchloremia at 72 h post-ICU admission and increasing serum Cl− were associated with elevated mortality risk from all causes in severely ill SICU patients.

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