loblolly pine
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2022 ◽  
Maxwell Boyle ◽  
Elizabeth Rico

The Southeast Coast Network (SECN) conducts long-term terrestrial vegetation monitoring as part of the nationwide Inventory and Monitoring Program of the National Park Service (NPS). The vegetation community vital sign is one of the primary-tier resources identified by SECN park managers, and monitoring is currently conducted at 15 network parks (DeVivo et al. 2008). Monitoring plants and their associated communities over time allows for targeted understanding of ecosystems within the SECN geography, which provides managers information about the degree of change within their parks’ natural vegetation. The first year of conducting this monitoring effort at four SECN parks, including 52 plots on Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA), was 2019. Twelve vegetation plots were established at Cape Hatteras NS in July and August. Data collected in each plot included species richness across multiple spatial scales, species-specific cover and constancy, species-specific woody stem seedling/sapling counts and adult tree (greater than 10 centimeters [3.9 inches {in}]) diameter at breast height (DBH), overall tree health, landform, soil, observed disturbance, and woody biomass (i.e., fuel load) estimates. This report summarizes the baseline (year 1) terrestrial vegetation data collected at Cape Hatteras National Seashore in 2019. Data were stratified across four dominant broadly defined habitats within the park (Maritime Tidal Wetlands, Maritime Nontidal Wetlands, Maritime Open Uplands, and Maritime Upland Forests and Shrublands) and four land parcels (Bodie Island, Buxton, Hatteras Island, and Ocracoke Island). Noteworthy findings include: A total of 265 vascular plant taxa (species or lower) were observed across 52 vegetation plots, including 13 species not previously documented within the park. The most frequently encountered species in each broadly defined habitat included: Maritime Tidal Wetlands: saltmeadow cordgrass Spartina patens), swallow-wort (Pattalias palustre), and marsh fimbry (Fimbristylis castanea) Maritime Nontidal Wetlands: common wax-myrtle (Morella cerifera), saltmeadow cordgrass, eastern poison ivy (Toxicodendron radicans var. radicans), and saw greenbriar (Smilax bona-nox) Maritime Open Uplands: sea oats (Uniola paniculata), dune camphorweed (Heterotheca subaxillaris), and seabeach evening-primrose (Oenothera humifusa) Maritime Upland Forests and Shrublands: : loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), southern/eastern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola + virginiana), common wax-myrtle, and live oak (Quercus virginiana). Five invasive species identified as either a Severe Threat (Rank 1) or Significant Threat (Rank 2) to native plants by the North Carolina Native Plant Society (Buchanan 2010) were found during this monitoring effort. These species (and their overall frequency of occurrence within all plots) included: alligatorweed (Alternanthera philoxeroides; 2%), Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica; 10%), Japanese stilt-grass (Microstegium vimineum; 2%), European common reed (Phragmites australis; 8%), and common chickweed (Stellaria media; 2%). Eighteen rare species tracked by the North Carolina Natural Heritage Program (Robinson 2018) were found during this monitoring effort, including two species—cypress panicgrass (Dichanthelium caerulescens) and Gulf Coast spikerush (Eleocharis cellulosa)—listed as State Endangered by the Plant Conservation Program of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services (NCPCP 2010). Southern/eastern red cedar was a dominant species within the tree stratum of both Maritime Nontidal Wetland and Maritime Upland Forest and Shrubland habitat types. Other dominant tree species within CAHA forests included loblolly pine, live oak, and Darlington oak (Quercus hemisphaerica). One hundred percent of the live swamp bay (Persea palustris) trees measured in these plots were experiencing declining vigor and observed with symptoms like those caused by laurel wilt......less

2022 ◽  
Vol 503 ◽  
pp. 119762
Bruno Marchetti Souza ◽  
Ananda Virgínia de Aguiar ◽  
Heloise Milena Dambrat ◽  
Simone Cristina Galucha ◽  
Evandro Vagner Tambarussi ◽  

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Jason G. Vogel ◽  
Rosvel Bracho ◽  
Madison Akers ◽  
Ralph Amateis ◽  
Allan Bacon ◽  

Tree plantations represent an important component of the global carbon (C) cycle and are expected to increase in prevalence during the 21st century. We examined how silvicultural approaches that optimize economic returns in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations affected the accumulation of C in pools of vegetation, detritus, and mineral soil up to 100 cm across the loblolly pine’s natural range in the southeastern United States. Comparisons of silvicultural treatments included competing vegetation or ‘weed’ control, fertilization, thinning, and varying intensities of silvicultural treatment for 106 experimental plantations and 322 plots. The average age of the sampled plantations was 17 years, and the C stored in vegetation (pine and understory) averaged 82.1 ± 3.0 (±std. error) Mg C ha−1, and 14.3 ± 0.6 Mg C ha−1 in detrital pools (soil organic layers, coarse-woody debris, and soil detritus). Mineral soil C (0–100 cm) averaged 79.8 ± 4.6 Mg C ha−1 across sites. For management effects, thinning reduced vegetation by 35.5 ± 1.2 Mg C ha−1 for all treatment combinations. Weed control and fertilization increased vegetation between 2.3 and 5.7 Mg C ha−1 across treatment combinations, with high intensity silvicultural applications producing greater vegetation C than low intensity (increase of 21.4 ± 1.7 Mg C ha−1). Detrital C pools were negatively affected by thinning where either fertilization or weed control were also applied, and were increased with management intensity. Mineral soil C did not respond to any silvicultural treatments. From these data, we constructed regression models that summarized the C accumulation in detritus and detritus + vegetation in response to independent variables commonly monitored by plantation managers (site index (SI), trees per hectare (TPH) and plantation age (AGE)). The C stored in detritus and vegetation increased on average with AGE and both models included SI and TPH. The detritus model explained less variance (adj. R2 = 0.29) than the detritus + vegetation model (adj. R2 = 0.87). A general recommendation for managers looking to maximize C storage would be to maintain a high TPH and increase SI, with SI manipulation having a greater relative effect. From the model, we predict that a plantation managed to achieve the average upper third SI (26.8) within our observations, and planted at 1500 TPH, could accumulate ~85 Mg C ha−1 by 12 years of age in detritus and vegetation, an amount greater than the region’s average mineral soil C pool. Notably, SI can be increased using both genetic and silviculture technologies.

2021 ◽  
Wen Lin ◽  
Jean-Christophe Domec ◽  
Eric J Ward ◽  
John Marshall ◽  
John S King ◽  

Daniel J. Leduc ◽  
Karl F. Wenger ◽  
Robert W. Cooper ◽  
Ernst V. Brender ◽  
Earle Jones

Daniel Ence ◽  
Katherine E Smith ◽  
Shenghua Fan ◽  
Leandro Gomide Neves ◽  
Robin Paul ◽  

Abstract Resistance to fusiform rust disease in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is a classic gene-for-gene system. Early resistance gene mapping in the P. taeda family 10-5 identified RAPD markers for a major fusiform rust resistance gene, Fr1. More recently SNP markers associated with resistance were mapped to a full-length gene model in the loblolly pine genome encoding for an NLR protein. NLR genes are one of the most abundant gene families in plant genomes and are involved in effector-triggered immunity. Inter- and intraspecies studies of NLR gene diversity and expression have resulted in improved disease resistance. To characterize NLR gene diversity and discover potential resistance genes, we assembled de novo transcriptomes from 92 loblolly genotypes from across the natural range of the species. In these transcriptomes, we identified novel NLR transcripts that are not present in the loblolly pine reference genome and found significant geographic diversity of NLR genes providing evidence of gene family-evolution. We designed capture probes for these NLRs to identify and map SNPs that stably cosegregate with resistance to the SC20-21 isolate of Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme (Cqf) in half-sib progeny of the 10-5 family. We identified ten SNPs and two QTL associated with resistance to SC20-21 Cqf. The geographic diversity of NLR genes provides evidence of NLR gene family-evolution in loblolly pine. The SNPs associated with rust resistance provide a resource to enhance breeding and deployment of resistant pine seedlings.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
David C. Walters ◽  
Joel A. Carr ◽  
Alyssa Hockaday ◽  
Joshua A. Jones ◽  
Eliza McFarland ◽  

Transgression into adjacent uplands is an important global response of coastal wetlands to accelerated rates of sea level rise. “Ghost forests” mark a signature characteristic of marsh transgression on the landscape, as changes in tidal inundation and salinity cause bordering upland tree mortality, increase light availability, and the emergence of tidal marsh species due to reduced competition. To investigate these mechanisms of the marsh migration process, we conducted a field experiment to simulate a natural disturbance event (e.g., storm-induced flooding) by inducing the death of established trees (coastal loblolly pine, Pinus taeda) at the marsh-upland forest ecotone. After this simulated disturbance in 2014, we monitored changes in vegetation along an elevation gradient in control and treatment areas to determine if disturbance can lead to an ecosystem shift from forested upland to wetland vegetation. Light availability initially increased in the disturbed area, leading to an increase in biodiversity of vegetation with early successional grass and shrub species. However, over the course of this 5-year experiment, there was no increase in inundation in the disturbed areas relative to the control and pine trees recolonized becoming the dominant plant cover in the disturbed study areas. Thus, in the 5 years since the disturbance, there has been no overall shift in species composition toward more hydrophytic vegetation that would be indicative of marsh transgression with the removal of trees. These findings suggest that disturbance is necessary but not sufficient alone for transgression to occur. Unless hydrological characteristics suppress tree re-growth within a period of several years following disturbance, the regenerating trees will shade and outcompete any migrating wetland vegetation species. Our results suggest that complex interactions between disturbance, biotic resistance, and slope help determine the potential for marsh transgression.

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