weed control
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2022 ◽  
Vol 277 ◽  
pp. 108408
Author(s):  
Aibin He ◽  
Min Jiang ◽  
Lixiao Nie ◽  
Huijuan Sun ◽  
Lei Chen ◽  
...  

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
C. B. Alvarenga ◽  
G. S. M. Mundim ◽  
E. A. Santos ◽  
R. B. A. Gallis ◽  
R. Zampiroli ◽  
...  

Abstract Water magnetization and geoprocessing are increasingly utilized tools in weed management. Our objective was to study the influence of water magnetization on herbicide efficiency and to verify whether there is a relationship between control scores and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In the laboratory experiment, water was subjected to magnetization and evaluated with respect to four characteristics. In the field experiment, plots of Brachiaria grass were subjected to treatments in a factorial scheme (6 × 2 + 1). Six herbicidal factors (doses of glyphosate and glyphosate + 2,4-D) and the magnetization or absence of magnetization of the spray solution were evaluated and compared against the control treatment (without spraying). Weed control assessments were carried out six times. Images were obtained using an embedded multispectral camera to determine the NDVI values. Data related to water characteristics were analyzed using the t test. Weed control and NDVI data were subjected to analysis of variance and are presented in regression graphs. Dispersion analysis of NDVI data was performed according to the control scores. The magnetization process decreased the pH of the water and increased the surface tension, but it did not influence the control scores or the NDVI. As the glyphosate dose was increased, the control scores were higher and the NDVI values were lower. Magnetized water did not affect the biological efficiency of the herbicides, and there was a strong correlation between the control scores and the NDVI values.


HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (2) ◽  
pp. 215-220
Author(s):  
Ravneet K. Sandhu ◽  
Laura E. Reuss ◽  
Nathan S. Boyd

Sulfentrazone was recently registered for use in tomato and strawberry in Florida. Field experiments were conducted at the Gulf Coast Research and Education Center in Wimauma, FL, to evaluate PRE sulfentrazone applications when applied on flat soil 30 days before bed formation (PRE-f), on the bed top immediately before laying plastic mulch (PRE-t), applied PRE-t as a tank mix with other PRE herbicides, or PRE-t followed by POST halosulfuron or rimusulfuron (POST). Sulfentrazone did not damage the tomato and strawberry crop and had no effect on strawberry and tomato fruit yield. It was as effective as the industry standards but none of the evaluated herbicide treatments provided adequate weed control. POST halosulfuron in tomato resulted in significantly greater nutsedge control at 11 (14%) and 13 (27%) weeks after initial treatment (WAIT) compared with other treatments in Fall 2019 and Spring 2020, respectively. However, in tomato, tank-mixing sulfentrazone with S-metolachlor or metribuzin did not enhance nutsedge control. Weed control did not improve with increased rates or with the use of PRE-f followed by (fb) PRE-t applications in tomato. PRE-t sulfentrazone fb POST halosulfuron was an efficient nutsedge management option in tomato. Sulfentrazone alone did not effectively control weeds in tomato or strawberry. Increased rates of sulfentrazone with the use of PRE-f fb PRE-t sulfentrazone applications did reduce (34%) total weed density in strawberry.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Bo Melander ◽  
◽  
Margaret R. McCollough ◽  

Mechanical weed control can be grouped into three categories: full-width cultivators, inter-row cultivators and intra-row cultivators. This chapter will highlight the most recent and relevant advances within each category. The focus will be on novel inventions and developments of mechanical devices, designs, and the weed problems they are meant to solve. Moreover, automation technologies that assist weeding operations are becoming increasingly important and will be given special attention.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sancar Bulut

Abstract This research was carried out to determine the effects of agronomic practices on the mineral composition of organically-grown wheat species. In terms of all nutrients evaluated, the mineral content of wheat showed significant differences according to crop years, varieties, weed control methods and fertilizer sources. As the average of all factors, the Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb contents of the ground wheat grain were; 3.93, 42.8, 79.6, 0.549, 11.34, 0.012, 0.140, 0.194, 3.71 and 0.269 mg / kg, respectively. According to the wheat varieties, the Kırik was superior in terms of Cu, Fe, Se, Zn, Co and Cr, and the Dogu-88 was superior in terms of Mn, Cd, and Ni. The effect of weed control methods on mineral content was variable. According to fertilizer sources, the highest mineral content was obtained from the control plots without fertilizer treatments. The lowest mineral contents were obtained from chemical fertilization, cattle manure and organic fertilizer applications. There was no significant increase in the mineral content of wheat with organic fertilization, however, organic agriculture still preserves its place in terms of healthy food. As a result, it has been determined that the values obtained for all mineral elements were not at a level that pose a risk on the environment, human and animal health according to WHO.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Author(s):  
Raven A. Bough ◽  
Todd A. Gaines ◽  
Franck E. Dayan

Quizalofop-resistant wheat is the core component of the recently commercialized CoAXium™ Wheat Production System. As with other herbicides, quizalofop provides better weed control at early growth stages and under optimum temperature. However, in regions with winter wheat production, quizalofop application may be affected by unpredictable, rapid temperature decreases. Temperature shifts can cause crop injury or impact weed control efficacy. In the following study, we examine the effect of reduced temperature on quizalofop content and metabolism in CoAXium™ winter wheat and three winter weed species: downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), feral rye (Secale cereale L.), and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host). Temperature conditions include either 19 or 4.5°C daytime temperatures with tissue sampling over 5 timepoints (1–16 or 18 days after treatment, DAT). Analysis features liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry detection of the active form of quizalofop, quizalofop acid. Quizalofop content trends reveal delayed metabolism under cooler conditions for wheat and weeds. Quizalofop content peaks within 1–2 DAT in the warmer temperatures for all species and decreases thereafter. In contrast, content peaks between 8 and 9 DAT at cooler temperatures except for downy brome. Minimal decreases in content over time generally follow cooler temperature peaks. Further, the absence of differences in maximum quizalofop content in all species suggests absorption and/or de-esterification of quizalofop proherbicide to the active form is not reduced at cooler temperatures. Final dry shoot tissue biomass does not necessarily correspond to differences in metabolism, as biomass of wheat treated with a field rate of quizalofop does not differ between temperatures. Weeds were treated with sublethal doses of quizalofop in order to monitor herbicide metabolism without causing plant death. Under this condition, weed biomass only differs for jointed goatgrass, which has a greater biomass in the cooler temperature.


Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 167
Author(s):  
Miriam Hannah Messelhäuser ◽  
Marcus Saile ◽  
Bernd Sievernich ◽  
Roland Gerhards

Effective control of Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (blackgrass) solely with a chemical treatment is not guaranteed anymore because populations exhibit resistance to almost all herbicide modes of action. Integrated weed management (IWM) against blackgrass is necessary to maintain high weed control efficacies in winter cereals. Four field experiments were conducted in Southwest Germany from 2018 to 2020 to control A. myosuroides with a combination of cultural and chemical methods. Stubble treatments, including flat, deep and inversion soil tillage; false seedbed preparation and glyphosate use, were combined with the application of the new pre-emergence herbicide cinmethylin in two rates in winter wheat. Average densities of A. myosuroides in the untreated control plots were up to 505 plants m−2. The combination of different stubble management strategies and the pre-emergence herbicide cinmethylin controlled 86–97% of A. myosuroides plants at the low rate and 95–100% at the high rate until 120 days after sowing. The different stubble tillage practices varied in their efficacy between trials and years. Most effective and consistent were pre-sowing glyphosate application on the stubble and stale seedbed preparation with a disc harrow. Stubble treatments increased winter wheat density in the first year but had no effect on crop density in the second year. Pre-emergence application of cinmethylin did not reduce winter wheat densities. Multiple tactics of weed control, including stubble treatments and pre-emergence application of cinmethylin, provided higher and more consistent control of A. myosuroides. Integration of cultural weed management could prevent the herbicide resistance development.


Author(s):  
K. Ramesh ◽  
S. Vijaya Kumar ◽  
P. K. Upadhyay ◽  
B. S. Chauhan

Abstract Weeds are a major biotic constraint to the production of crops. Studies on the critical period of weed control (CPWC) consider the yield loss due to the presence of all weeds present in the crop cycle. The CPWC is the time interval between the critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) and the critical weed-free period (CWFP), and the weed presence before and after the extremes of CTWR and CWFP may not significantly reduce crop yield. The crop yield is taken into consideration and weed density or biomass of individual weeds (annual or perennial) is not so important while calculating the CPWC. Only weed density or biomass is considered for calculating weed control efficiency of a particular management practice for which the weed seed bank is also a criterion. However, weed biomass is the outcome after competition experienced by each weed species with the fellow crop and the weeds. Consequently, the weed pressure in the subsequent season will be the cumulative effect of the preceding season too, which is unaccounted for in CPWC. It is argued that in organic farming or low-input farming systems, where herbicides are not used, the concept of CPWC can be misleading and should be avoided. It is concluded that CTWR is more meaningful than the CPWC.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Guy Coleman ◽  
William Salter ◽  
Michael Walsh

AbstractThe use of a fallow phase is an important tool for maximizing crop yield potential in moisture limited agricultural environments, with a focus on removing weeds to optimize fallow efficiency. Repeated whole field herbicide treatments to control low-density weed populations is expensive and wasteful. Site-specific herbicide applications to low-density fallow weed populations is currently facilitated by proprietary, sensor-based spray booms. The use of image analysis for fallow weed detection is an opportunity to develop a system with potential for in-crop weed recognition. Here we present OpenWeedLocator (OWL), an open-source, low-cost and image-based device for fallow weed detection that improves accessibility to this technology for the weed control community. A comprehensive GitHub repository was developed, promoting community engagement with site-specific weed control methods. Validation of OWL as a low-cost tool was achieved using four, existing colour-based algorithms over seven fallow fields in New South Wales, Australia. The four algorithms were similarly effective in detecting weeds with average precision of 79% and recall of 52%. In individual transects up to 92% precision and 74% recall indicate the performance potential of OWL in fallow fields. OWL represents an opportunity to redefine the approach to weed detection by enabling community-driven technology development in agriculture.


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