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Abstract Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that can cause injury or death if inhaled. CO is a frequent secondary hazard induced by the aftereffects of natural hazards as individuals, families, and communities often seek alternative power sources for heating, cooking, lighting, and cleanup during the emergency and recovery phases of a disaster. These alternative power sources—such as portable generators, petroleum-based heaters, and vehicles—exhaust CO that can ultimately build to toxic levels in enclosed areas. Ever-increasing environmental and societal changes combined with an aging infrastructure are growing the odds of power failures during hazardous weather events, which, in turn, are increasing the likelihood of CO exposure, illness, and death. This study analyzed weather-related CO fatalities from 2000 to 2019 in the U.S. using death certificate data, providing one of the longest assessments of this mortality. Results reveal that over 8,300 CO fatalities occurred in the U.S. during the 20-year study period, with 17% of those deaths affiliated with weather perils. Cool-season perils such as ice storms, snowstorms, and extreme cold were the leading hazards that led to situations causing CO fatalities. States in the Southeast and Northeast had the highest CO fatality rates, with winter having the greatest seasonal mortality. In general, these preventable CO poisoning influxes are related to a deficiency of knowledge on generator safety and the absence of working detectors and alarms in the enclosed locations where poisonings occur. Education and prevention programs that target the most vulnerable populations will help prevent future weather-related CO fatalities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 147 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-52
Camila M.L. Alves ◽  
Hsueh-Yuan Chang ◽  
Cindy B.S. Tong ◽  
Charlie L. Rohwer ◽  
Loren Avalos ◽  

Shading has been used to produce high-quality lettuce (Lactuca sativa) in locations where production conditions are not optimal for this cool-season crop. To learn what additional benefits shading provides if heat-tolerant cultivars are used and to understand the effects of shading on growth, sensory quality, chemical content, and transcriptome profile on heat-tolerant lettuce, we grew two romaine lettuce cultivars with and without shading using 50% black shadecloth in 2018 and 2019. Shading reduced plant leaf temperatures, lettuce head fresh weights, glucose and total sugars content, and sweetness, but not bitterness, whereas it increased lettuce chlorophyll b content compared with unshaded controls. Transcriptome analyses identified genes predominantly involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and carbohydrate metabolism as upregulated in unshaded controls compared with shaded treatments. For the tested cultivars, which were bred to withstand high growing temperatures, it may be preferable to grow them under unshaded conditions to avoid increased infrastructure costs and obtain lettuce deemed sweeter than if shaded.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (7) ◽  
Valentina Ylluyanka Méndez Moncada ◽  
Luana Fidelis Américo ◽  
Paulo Gonçalves Duchini ◽  
Gabriela Cristina Guzatti ◽  
Daniel Schmitt ◽  

ABSTRACT: In this study we tested whether the root biomass of mixtures composed by grass species is greater than their respective monocultures. The treatments were monocultures of Arrhenatherum elatius, Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerata, and a mixture of them, cultivated in a rich-soil environment. Root biomass was evaluated on a single evaluation per season at three soil depths (0-5, 5-10, and 10-20 cm). Mixed swards presented the greatest root biomass, and this was explained by a greater concentration in the topsoil layer (0-5 cm). These findings reinforce the need for permanent soil conservation practices to not jeopardize the benefits of the more abundant root biomass reported in the mixed swards.

HortScience ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 57 (1) ◽  
pp. 10-16
Matthew T. Elmore ◽  
Aaron J. Patton ◽  
Adam W. Thoms ◽  
Daniel P. Tuck

Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) control with postemergence herbicides in cool-season turfgrass is often inconsistent. Amicarbazone and mesotrione have complementary modes of action but have not been evaluated in tank-mixtures for control of mature annual bluegrass in cool-season turfgrass. Field experiments were conducted during 2018 in New Jersey, and in Indiana, Iowa, and New Jersey during 2019 to evaluate springtime applications of amicarbazone and mesotrione for POST annual bluegrass control in cool-season turfgrass. On separate tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) sites in 2018, three sequential applications of amicarbazone (53 g⋅ha−1) + mesotrione at 110 to 175 g⋅ha−1 provided >70% annual bluegrass control, whereas three sequential applications of amicarbazone alone at 53 and 70 as well as two sequential applications at 110 g⋅ha−1 provided <15% control at 14 weeks after initial treatment (WAIT). In 2019, results in New Jersey were similar to 2018 where amicarbazone alone provided less control than mesotrione + amicarbazone tank-mixtures. In Indiana, where the annual bluegrass infestation was severe and most mature, tank-mixtures were more effective than amicarbazone alone at 6 WAIT, but at 12 WAIT all treatments provided poor control. In Iowa, where the annual bluegrass infestation was <1 year old, all treatments provided similar control throughout the experiment and by >80% at the conclusion of the experiment. This research demonstrates that sequential applications of mesotrione + amicarbazone can provide more annual bluegrass control than either herbicide alone, but efficacy is inconsistent across locations, possibly due to annual bluegrass maturity and infestation severity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 399
Jitendra Kumar ◽  
Reyazul Rouf Mir ◽  
Safoora Shafi ◽  
Debjyoti Sen Gupta ◽  
Ivica Djalovic ◽  

Cool season grain legumes occupy an important place among the agricultural crops and essentially provide multiple benefits including food supply, nutrition security, soil fertility improvement and revenue for farmers all over the world. However, owing to climate change, the average temperature is steadily rising, which negatively affects crop performance and limits their yield. Terminal heat stress that mainly occurred during grain development phases severely harms grain quality and weight in legumes adapted to the cool season, such as lentils, faba beans, chickpeas, field peas, etc. Although, traditional breeding approaches with advanced screening procedures have been employed to identify heat tolerant legume cultivars. Unfortunately, traditional breeding pipelines alone are no longer enough to meet global demands. Genomics-assisted interventions including new-generation sequencing technologies and genotyping platforms have facilitated the development of high-resolution molecular maps, QTL/gene discovery and marker-assisted introgression, thereby improving the efficiency in legumes breeding to develop stress-resilient varieties. Based on the current scenario, we attempted to review the intervention of genomics to decipher different components of tolerance to heat stress and future possibilities of using newly developed genomics-based interventions in cool season adapted grain legumes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Taylor D. Ferguson ◽  
Eric S. Vanzant ◽  
Kyle R. McLeod

Endophyte-infected fescue is a major cool season forage used for livestock production in the United States and through other areas of the world. A unique aspect of this forage resource is the symbiotic relationship with an endophytic fungus (Epichloë coenophiala) that has detrimental impact on herbivores due to toxic ergot alkaloids. Research over the past 50 years has unveiled details regarding this symbiotic relationship. This review focuses on the origin of tall fescue in the United States and the consequences of its wide-spread utilization as a livestock forage, along with the discovery and toxicodynamics of ergot alkaloids produced by E. coenophiala. The majority of past ergot alkaloid research has focused on observing phenotypic changes that occur in livestock affected by ergot alkaloids, but recent investigation of the metabolome, transcriptome, and proteome have shown that fescue toxicity-related illnesses are much more complex than previous research suggests.

Abstract Cutoff low pressure systems have been found to be the synoptic system responsible for the majority of rainfall in South-Eastern Australia during the cool season (April to October inclusive). Meanwhile, rainfall in South-Eastern Australia at the seasonal and interannual scale is known to be related to remote climate drivers, such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation, the Indian Ocean Dipole, and the Southern Annular Mode. In this study, a new automated tracking scheme to identify synoptic scale cutoff lows is developed, then applied to 500 hPa geopotential height data from the NCEP1 and ERA-Interim reanalyses, to create two databases of cool season cutoff lows for South Eastern Australia for the years 1979 to 2018 inclusive. Climatological characteristics of cutoff lows identified in both reanalyses are presented and compared, highlighting differences between the NCEP1 and ERA-Interim reanalyses over the Australian region. Finally, cool-season and monthly characteristics of cutoff low frequency, duration and location are plotted against cool-season and monthly values of climate driver indices (Oceanic Nino Index, Dipole Mean Index, and Antarctic Oscillation), to identify any evidence of linear correlation. Correlations between these aspects of cutoff low occurrence and the remote drivers were found to be statistically significant at the 95% level for only a single isolated month at a time, in contrast to results predicted by previous works. It is concluded that future studies of cutoff low variability over SEA should employ identification criteria that capture systems of only upper-level origin, and differentiate between cold-cored and cold-trough systems.

Mengyao Liu ◽  
Tianxiao Sun ◽  
Chunling Liu ◽  
Hui Zhang ◽  
Weiliang Wang ◽  

Kyle A. Arndt ◽  
Eleanor E. Campbell ◽  
Chris D. Dorich ◽  
A. Stuart Grandy ◽  
Timothy S. Griffin ◽  

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