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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Sudhakar Sengan ◽  
Osamah Ibrahim Khalaf ◽  
Ganga Rama Koteswara Rao ◽  
Dilip Kumar Sharma ◽  
Amarendra K. ◽  

An ad hoc structure is self-organizing, self-forming, and system-free, with no nearby associations. One of the significant limits we must focus on in frameworks is leading. As for directions, we can send the packet or communications from the sender to the recipient node. AODV Routing Protocol, a short display that will make the tutorial available on demand. Machine Learning (ML) based IDS must be integrated and perfected to support the detection of vulnerabilities and enable frameworks to make intrusion decisions while ML is about their mobile context. This paper considers the combined effect of stooped difficulties along the way, problems at the medium get-right-of-area to impact layer, or pack disasters triggered by the remote control going off route. The AODV as the Routing MANET protocol is used in this work, and the process is designed and evaluated using Support Vector Machine (SVM) to detect the malicious network nodes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-23
Suman Bhoi ◽  
Mong Li Lee ◽  
Wynne Hsu ◽  
Hao Sen Andrew Fang ◽  
Ngiap Chuan Tan

The broad adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) has led to vast amounts of data being accumulated on a patient’s history, diagnosis, prescriptions, and lab tests. Advances in recommender technologies have the potential to utilize this information to help doctors personalize the prescribed medications. However, existing medication recommendation systems have yet to make use of all these information sources in a seamless manner, and they do not provide a justification on why a particular medication is recommended. In this work, we design a two-stage personalized medication recommender system called PREMIER that incorporates information from the EHR. We utilize the various weights in the system to compute the contributions from the information sources for the recommended medications. Our system models the drug interaction from an external drug database and the drug co-occurrence from the EHR as graphs. Experiment results on MIMIC-III and a proprietary outpatient dataset show that PREMIER outperforms state-of-the-art medication recommendation systems while achieving the best tradeoff between accuracy and drug-drug interaction. Case studies demonstrate that the justifications provided by PREMIER are appropriate and aligned to clinical practices.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (4) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Adoption and user perceptions are dominant on personal health records literature and have led to a better understanding of what individuals' behaviors and perceptions are about the adoption of personal health records. However, these insights are descriptive and are not actionable to allow creating personal health records that will overcome the adoption problems identified by users. This study uses action design research to provide actionable knowledge regarding user perceptions and adoption and their application in the case of the digital allergy card. To achieve this, we conducted interviews with patients and physicians as part of the evaluation of the digital allergy card mock-up and the first prototype. As results, we provided some research proposals regarding the benefits of, levers for, and barriers to adoption of the digital allergy card that can be tested for several other personal health records.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-27
Md Momin Al Aziz ◽  
Tanbir Ahmed ◽  
Tasnia Faequa ◽  
Xiaoqian Jiang ◽  
Yiyu Yao ◽  

Technological advancements in data science have offered us affordable storage and efficient algorithms to query a large volume of data. Our health records are a significant part of this data, which is pivotal for healthcare providers and can be utilized in our well-being. The clinical note in electronic health records is one such category that collects a patient’s complete medical information during different timesteps of patient care available in the form of free-texts. Thus, these unstructured textual notes contain events from a patient’s admission to discharge, which can prove to be significant for future medical decisions. However, since these texts also contain sensitive information about the patient and the attending medical professionals, such notes cannot be shared publicly. This privacy issue has thwarted timely discoveries on this plethora of untapped information. Therefore, in this work, we intend to generate synthetic medical texts from a private or sanitized (de-identified) clinical text corpus and analyze their utility rigorously in different metrics and levels. Experimental results promote the applicability of our generated data as it achieves more than 80\% accuracy in different pragmatic classification problems and matches (or outperforms) the original text data.

Denise J. van der Nat ◽  
Margot Taks ◽  
Victor J. B. Huiskes ◽  
Bart J. F. van den Bemt ◽  
Hein A. W. van Onzenoort

AbstractBackground Personal health records have the potential to identify medication discrepancies. Although they facilitate patient empowerment and broad implementation of medication reconciliation, more medication discrepancies are identified through medication reconciliation performed by healthcare professionals. Aim We aimed to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of a clinically relevant deviation in a patient’s medication list based on a personal health record (used by patients) compared to medication reconciliation performed by a healthcare professional. Method Three- to 14 days prior to a planned admission to the Cardiology-, Internal Medicine- or Neurology Departments, at Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands, patients were invited to update their medication file in their personal health records. At admission, medication reconciliation was performed by a pharmacy technician. Deviations were determined as differences between these medication lists. Associations between patient-, setting-, and medication-related factors, and the occurrence of a clinically relevant deviation (National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention class $$\ge$$ ≥ E) were analysed. Results Of the 488 patients approached, 155 patients were included. Twenty-four clinically relevant deviations were observed. Younger patients (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.94; 95%CI:0.91–0.98), patients who used individual multi-dose packaging (aOR 14.87; 95%CI:2.02–110), and patients who used $$\ge$$ ≥ 8 different medications, were at highest risk for the occurrence of a clinically relevant deviation (sensitivity 0.71; specificity 0.62; area under the curve 0.64 95%CI:0.52–0.76). Conclusion Medication reconciliation is the preferred method to identify medication discrepancies for patients with individual multi-dose packaging, and patients who used eight or more different medications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Melanie Duckert ◽  
Louise Barkhuus

Digital health data is important to keep secure, and patients' perception around the privacy of it is essential to the development of digital health records. In this paper we present people's perceptions of the communication of data protection, in relation to their personal health data and the access to it; we focused particularly on people with chronic or long-term illness. Based on their use of personally accessible health records, we inquired into their explicit perception of security and sense of data privacy in relation to their health data. Our goal was to provide insights and guidelines to designers and developers on the communication of data protection in health records in an accessible way for the users. We analyzed their approach to and experience with their own health care records and describe the details of their challenges. A conceptual framework called "Privacy Awareness' was developed from the findings and reflects the perspectives of the users. The conceptual framework forms the basis of a proposal for design guidelines for Digital Health Record systems, which aim to address, facilitate and improve the users' awareness of the protection of their online health data.

10.2196/25157 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. e25157
Zhen Yang ◽  
Chloé Pou-Prom ◽  
Ashley Jones ◽  
Michaelia Banning ◽  
David Dai ◽  

Background The Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score is a widely used measure to monitor disability progression in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, extracting and deriving the EDSS score from unstructured electronic health records can be time-consuming. Objective We aimed to compare rule-based and deep learning natural language processing algorithms for detecting and predicting the total EDSS score and EDSS functional system subscores from the electronic health records of patients with MS. Methods We studied 17,452 electronic health records of 4906 MS patients followed at one of Canada’s largest MS clinics between June 2015 and July 2019. We randomly divided the records into training (80%) and test (20%) data sets, and compared the performance characteristics of 3 natural language processing models. First, we applied a rule-based approach, extracting the EDSS score from sentences containing the keyword “EDSS.” Next, we trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) model to predict the 19 half-step increments of the EDSS score. Finally, we used a combined rule-based–CNN model. For each approach, we determined the accuracy, precision, recall, and F-score compared with the reference standard, which was manually labeled EDSS scores in the clinic database. Results Overall, the combined keyword-CNN model demonstrated the best performance, with accuracy, precision, recall, and an F-score of 0.90, 0.83, 0.83, and 0.83 respectively. Respective figures for the rule-based and CNN models individually were 0.57, 0.91, 0.65, and 0.70, and 0.86, 0.70, 0.70, and 0.70. Because of missing data, the model performance for EDSS subscores was lower than that for the total EDSS score. Performance improved when considering notes with known values of the EDSS subscores. Conclusions A combined keyword-CNN natural language processing model can extract and accurately predict EDSS scores from patient records. This approach can be automated for efficient information extraction in clinical and research settings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 86
Shang-Ming Zhou ◽  
Ronan A. Lyons ◽  
Muhammad A. Rahman ◽  
Alexander Holborow ◽  
Sinead Brophy

(1) Background: This study investigates influential risk factors for predicting 30-day readmission to hospital for Campylobacter infections (CI). (2) Methods: We linked general practitioner and hospital admission records of 13,006 patients with CI in Wales (1990–2015). An approach called TF-zR (term frequency-zRelevance) technique was presented to evaluates how relevant a clinical term is to a patient in a cohort characterized by coded health records. The zR is a supervised term-weighting metric to assign weight to a term based on relative frequencies of the term across different classes. Cost-sensitive classifier with swarm optimization and weighted subset learning was integrated to identify influential clinical signals as predictors and optimal model for readmission prediction. (3) Results: From a pool of up to 17,506 variables, 33 most predictive factors were identified, including age, gender, Townsend deprivation quintiles, comorbidities, medications, and procedures. The predictive model predicted readmission with 73% sensitivity and 54% specificity. Variables associated with readmission included male gender, recurrent tonsillitis, non-healing open wounds, operation for in-gown toenails. Cystitis, paracetamol/codeine use, age (21–25), and heliclear triple pack use, were associated with a lower risk of readmission. (4) Conclusions: This study gives a profile of clustered variables that are predictive of readmission associated with campylobacteriosis.

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