data protection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-10
Tooska Dargahi ◽  
Hossein Ahmadvand ◽  
Mansour Naser Alraja ◽  
Chia-Mu Yu

Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAVs) are introduced to improve individuals’ quality of life by offering a wide range of services. They collect a huge amount of data and exchange them with each other and the infrastructure. The collected data usually includes sensitive information about the users and the surrounding environment. Therefore, data security and privacy are among the main challenges in this industry. Blockchain, an emerging distributed ledger, has been considered by the research community as a potential solution for enhancing data security, integrity, and transparency in Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). However, despite the emphasis of governments on the transparency of personal data protection practices, CAV stakeholders have not been successful in communicating appropriate information with the end users regarding the procedure of collecting, storing, and processing their personal data, as well as the data ownership. This article provides a vision of the opportunities and challenges of adopting blockchain in ITS from the “data transparency” and “privacy” perspective. The main aim is to answer the following questions: (1) Considering the amount of personal data collected by the CAVs, such as location, how would the integration of blockchain technology affect transparency , fairness , and lawfulness of personal data processing concerning the data subjects (as this is one of the main principles in the existing data protection regulations)? (2) How can the trade-off between transparency and privacy be addressed in blockchain-based ITS use cases?

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (GROUP) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Melanie Duckert ◽  
Louise Barkhuus

Digital health data is important to keep secure, and patients' perception around the privacy of it is essential to the development of digital health records. In this paper we present people's perceptions of the communication of data protection, in relation to their personal health data and the access to it; we focused particularly on people with chronic or long-term illness. Based on their use of personally accessible health records, we inquired into their explicit perception of security and sense of data privacy in relation to their health data. Our goal was to provide insights and guidelines to designers and developers on the communication of data protection in health records in an accessible way for the users. We analyzed their approach to and experience with their own health care records and describe the details of their challenges. A conceptual framework called "Privacy Awareness' was developed from the findings and reflects the perspectives of the users. The conceptual framework forms the basis of a proposal for design guidelines for Digital Health Record systems, which aim to address, facilitate and improve the users' awareness of the protection of their online health data.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 96
Lydia O'Sullivan ◽  
Tomás P. Carroll ◽  
Niamh Clarke ◽  
Sarah Cooper ◽  
Ann Cullen ◽  

Biobanks are repositories of human biological samples and data. They are an important component of clinical research in many disease areas and often represent the first step toward innovative treatments. For biobanks to operate, researchers need human participants to give their samples and associated health data. In Ireland, research participants must provide their freely given informed consent for their samples and data to be taken and used for research purposes. Biobank staff are responsible for communicating the relevant information to participants prior to obtaining their consent, and this communication process is supported by the Participant Information Leaflets and Informed Consent Form (PI/ICFs). PILs/ICFs should be concise, intelligible, and contain relevant information. While not a substitute for layperson and research staff discussions, PILs and ICFs ensure that a layperson has enough information to make an informed choice to participate or not. However, PILs/ICFs are often lengthy, contain technical language and can be complicated and onerous for a layperson to read. The introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation and the related Irish Health Research Regulation presented additional challenges to the Irish biobank community. In May 2019, the National Biobanking Working Group (NBWG) was established in Ireland. It consists of members from diverse research backgrounds located in universities, hospitals and research centres across Ireland and a public/patient partner. The NBWG aimed to develop a suite of resources for health research biobanks via robust and meaningful patient engagement, which are accessible, General Data Protection Regulation/Health Research Regulation-compliant and could be used nationally, including a PIL/ICF template. This open letter describes the process whereby this national biobank PIL/ICF template was produced. The development of this template included review by the Patient Voice in Cancer Research, led by Professor Amanda McCann at University College Dublin and the Health Research Data Protection Network.

ERA Forum ◽  
2022 ◽  
Teresa Quintel

AbstractFinancial information can play a key role in tackling money laundering, terrorist financing and combatting serious crime more generally. Preventing and fighting money laundering and the financing of terrorism were top priorities of the European Union’s (EU) Security Strategy for 2020-2025, which might explain the fast developments regarding legislative measures to further regulate anti-money laundering (AML) and counter terrorism financing (CTF). In May 2020, the European Commission put forward an Action Plan to establish a Union policy on combatting money laundering and shortly afterwards, proposed a new AML Package.Financial Intelligence Units (FIUs) play a crucial role in analysing and exchanging information concerning unusual and suspicious transactions, serving as intermediaries between the private sector and law enforcement authorities (LEAs). Such information includes personal data, which is protected under the EU data protection acquis. The latter is constituted of two main laws, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which applies to general processing and the so-called Law Enforcement Directive (LED) that is applicable when competent law enforcement authorities process personal data for law enforcement purposes.This Article argues that the current legal framework on AML and CTF legislation is unclear on the data protection regime that applies to the processing of personal data by FIUs and that the proposed AML Package does little or nothing to clarify this dilemma. In order to contribute to the discussion on the applicable data protection framework for FIUs, the assessment puts forward arguments for and against the application of the LED to such processing, taking into account the relevant legal texts on AML and data protection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 35 (1) ◽  
pp. 101-118
Miral-Sabry AlAshry

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of the Egyptian Personal Data Protection Law No. 151 for 2020, as well as its implications for journalistic practice. More specifically, the focal point of this study was to explore how Egyptian journalists interpret the law and its implication for press freedom in Egypt. The underpinning theoretical framework was informed by the Authoritarian school of thought. Questionnaires were distributed to 199 journalists from both independent and semi-governmental representing thirteen official newspapers of Egypt, while in-depth interviews were done with (3) Editors, (4) journalists, and (3) human rights lawyers. The finding of the study indicated that the government placed restrictions on journalists by using Data Protection Law relating to the media. That law is negatively impacting journalists and media houses. It was clear from the findings that the journalists see the law as an obstacle to media independence, as it allows the government to exercise greater information control through digital policy and puts rules of regulation against journalists.

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