Living Arrangements
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2021 ◽  
Salima Farooq ◽  
Yasmin Parpio ◽  
Saadia Sattar ◽  
Zahra Ali ◽  
Shirin Rahim ◽  

Abstract Background Globally, the prevalence of mental illness amongst university students is a major concern; same is the case with nursing students. Unaddressed mental illness stigma contributes towards hiding of symptoms hampers timely identification of the disease, and leads to reluctance in attitude towards seeking help. This study determined personal and perceived depression stigma and attitude towards help-seeking behaviors and its associated factors, among undergraduate nursing students at a private nursing institution in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study by recruiting 246 first and second-Year undergraduate nursing students using consecutive sampling. Data were collected using the Depression Stigma Scale (DSS) and the Attitude toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPHS), along with a demographic questionnaire. Chi-square test, Fischer’s exact test and student T test were used to determine significance of difference of each response between first and second year students. Multiple linear regression was employed to determine predictors of DSS and ATSPPHS. Approval was obtained from the university’s Ethics Review Committee. Results The study findings revealed that the mean scores of the personal and perceived stigma scales were 29.7 ± 4.9 and 24.3 ± 6.1, respectively. The mean score of ATSPPHS was 16.5 ± 3.8. The participants reported a mean openness score of7.8 ± 2.6 and a value scale score of 8.7 ± 3.0. A history of psychiatric illness, current living arrangements, and personal depression stigma were found to be significant predictors of ATSPHHS. The year of study was a significant predictor of personal depression stigma whereas both years of study and the current living arrangements were significantly associated with perceived depression stigma. Conclusion Attitude towards seeking help for mental illness was significantly influenced by personal and perceived stigma. Moreover, previous history of psychiatric illness and living arrangements also predicted attitudes towards seeking help. In order to encourage positive attitudes towards seeking help for students’ well-being, it is essential to destigmatize mental health issues by adapting context-based, individualized, and group mental health interventions.

Xin Xu ◽  
Yuan Zhao ◽  
Danan Gu ◽  
Yaolin Pei ◽  
Bei Wu

The role of health behaviors in oral health conditions in individuals of extremely old age remains understudied. This study included 185 participants aged 100 years or older from the Nanjing Centenarians Study (NCS) to examine the associations between health behaviors and oral health and investigate the potential moderating role of education and living arrangements in such relationships. The oral health status as an outcome included the self-reported oral health status and edentulous status. Health behavior variables included smoking, eating fruits, eating vegetables, participating in leisure activities, and practicing oral hygiene behaviors. Sociodemographic characteristics and health status were considered as confounders. Descriptive statistics, ordinal regression, and logistic regression models were used to address the research questions. Results showed that better oral health was reported by centenarians who were non-smokers, participated in more leisure activities, and practiced higher frequency of oral hygiene behaviors. Those who ate fruits daily and practiced more frequently oral hygiene behaviors were more likely to be dentate. The positive association of oral hygiene behaviors was stronger for centenarians who were formally educated and co-resided with family members. The results suggest that effective interventions should consider health behaviors and living arrangements in this growing population to improve their oral health status.

2021 ◽  
pp. 0192513X2110223
Julieta Palma

Previous research has mainly understood household extension as a family strategy to face economic deprivation, giving little attention to other factors affecting it. Using 2017 data from the National Socioeconomic Characterization Survey, this article evaluates the role played by economic and life-course factors in extended family living arrangements among women in family units in Chile ( n = 60,111). Results indicate that economic needs are an important driver for those seeking refuge in someone else’s home, but they are less important for those hosting other relatives within their household. Importantly, the likelihood of living in an extended household—and the position that family units occupy within the household (as head-families or subfamilies)—changes over the life span. Young women (15–34 years) are more likely to live in extended households as sub-families, while middle-aged women (45–64 years) tend to live in extended households as household heads, hosting young cohabiting couples, or lone mothers.

2021 ◽  
Kai Wei ◽  
Yong Liu ◽  
Junjie Yang ◽  
Nannan Gu ◽  
Xinyi Cao ◽  

Abstract Background: Although it has been suggested that loneliness is a risk factor for adverse health outcomes, living arrangement may confound the association. This study aimed to investigate whether the associations of loneliness with adverse health outcomes differ in community-dwelling older adults according to different living arrangements.Methods: In the 2008/2009 wave of Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey, 16255 community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) were recruited. Living arrangements and feelings of loneliness were assessed. Health outcomes including cognitive and physical functions were assessed using MMSE, ADL/IADL scales and Frailty Index in the 2008/2009 and 2011/2012 waves; mortality was assessed in the 3-year follow-up from 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. The associations of loneliness with adverse health outcomes accroding to different living arrangements were estimated using logistic regression or Cox proportional hazards regression models. Interactions between living arrangement and loneliness on adverse health outcomes were also investigated.Results: Older adults who were lonely (47.8% of those living alone and 25% of those living with others) had higher prevalence of cognitive impairment, frailty and 3-year mortality than older adults without loneliness, especially among those who lived with others (OR=1.31, 95% CI=1.15-1.51; OR=1.42, 95% CI=1.26-1.60; HR=1.16, 95% CI=1.07-1.26, respecitvely). In contrast, among the living alone older adults, loneliness was only associated with higher prevalence of frailty (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.06-1.88). Living arrangement modified the associations of loneliness with prevalent cognitive impairment and mortality (P values for interactions=0.006 and 0.015, respectively).Conclusions: Living arrangement modifies the associations of loneliness with adverse health outcomes in community-dwelling older adults, and those who lived with others but felt lonely had worse cognitive and physical functions as well as higher mortality. Special attention should be paid to this population to reduce adverse health outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Shobhit Srivastava ◽  
Subhojit Shaw ◽  
Himanshu Chaurasia ◽  
Naina Purkayastha ◽  
T. Muhammad

Abstract Introduction Advancement in the field of gerontology has been concerned with the well-being of older adults in a family setup that is associated with caregiving and support. While family life and well-being are defined by emotion, caregiving, and support activities, dissatisfaction/discontent with living arrangements is a public health concern, which is increasing with a rise in the proportion of the older population in the country. The study examines the association of dissatisfaction with living arrangements with health outcomes among older men and women in India. Methods The present research used data from the 'Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India'. The effective sample size for the analysis was 9181 older adults. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed to present the preliminary estimates. For finding the association between various health outcomes over explanatory variables, binary logistic regression model was used separately for men and women. Results About 22.8% of men and 30.8% of women who were living alone were dissatisfied with their present living arrangement. It was revealed that both men and women who were dissatisfied with their present living arrangements had significantly higher odds of experiencing poor self-rated health [OR:4.45, 3.25 ~ 6.09 and OR:3.32, 2.54 ~ 4.34], low psychological health [OR: 2.15, 1.61 ~ 2.86 and OR: 1.99, 1.57 ~ 2.53], low subjective well-being [OR: 3.37, 2.54 ~ 4.45 and OR: 3.03, 2.36 ~ 3.38], low ADL [OR: 1.77, 1.2 ~ 2.62 and OR: 1.59, 1.17 ~ 2.18, low IADL] [OR: 1.32, 1.03 ~ 1.69 and OR: 1.57, 1.24 ~ 1.98] and low cognitive ability [OR: 1.26, 0.98 ~ 1.61 and OR:1.44, 1.13 ~ 1.82] in comparison to their counterpart from men and women respectively. Conclusion It is found that dissatisfaction with the living arrangement of older men and women is negatively associated with major health outcomes. Hence, appropriate policies and programs must be developed to promote increased family care and support and an improved residential environment that would create a feeling of comfort and happiness among older individuals.

2021 ◽  
pp. 074355842110184
Roderick L. Carey

As researchers and school stakeholders determine ways to best support Black and Latino adolescent boys from low-income communities in actualizing their postsecondary future ambitions, more attention is needed on the types of futures these boys imagine and how family members influence this process. Guided by future orientations and possible selves frameworks, this school-based ethnographic study investigated the ways families influenced what the author calls the “postsecondary future selves” of Black and Latino (i.e., U.S.-born Salvadoran) 11th-grade boys ( N = 5). Described as what youth conceptualize as possible, likely, and expected for their lives after high school, postsecondary future selves considers three future domains: “college” (postsecondary education), “career” (postcollege employment trajectory), and “condition” (expected financial stability, relational and familial prospects, future living arrangements, happiness, and joy). Findings indicate that families built their boys’ capacities for envisioning and making strides toward ideal futures. Finding “success,” “being somebody,” and “having a future” underscored familial messages that emphasized the salience of college going in obtaining a career and life condition that would lead their boys to finding pride and fulfillment. Implications support stakeholders in building adolescents’ efficacy for threading linkages between college going and college majors, career trajectories, and expected life conditions, thus complementing familial-based supports.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Jiong Tu ◽  
Manxuan Shen ◽  
Jiudi Zhong ◽  
Gang Yuan ◽  
Miaohong Chen

The study explores older people's perceptions and experiences with mobile technology adoption in hospitals. Twenty nine older people were interviewed at a tertiary hospital in Guangzhou from June to December 2020. All the interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Older people are a diversified group. Various factors impact their readiness for technology use, including their educational level, age, past experiences, living arrangements, etc. The older people in this study in general expressed a great concern about using the new health technology and many encountered barriers to its successful adoption. Yet, the barriers and difficulties that they encountered are embedded in a changed social context in China. The findings above provide insights into the adoption of health technology, and tailored measures to facilitate older people's technology adoption are suggested.

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