measurement techniques
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Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 410 ◽  
pp. 115677
Author(s):  
Jirapat Tuntrachanida ◽  
Worachart Wisawapipat ◽  
Surachet Aramrak ◽  
Natthapol Chittamart ◽  
Wantana Klysubun ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 379
Author(s):  
Dongsheng Zhang ◽  
Zhenyang Yu ◽  
Yan Xu ◽  
Li Ding ◽  
Hu Ding ◽  
...  

Image-based displacement measurement techniques are widely used for sensing the deformation of structures, and plays an increasing role in structural health monitoring owing to its benefit of non-contacting. In this study, a non-overlapping dual camera measurement model with the aid of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is proposed to sense the three-dimensional (3D) displacements of high-rise structures. Each component of the dual camera system can measure a pair of displacement components of a target point in a 3D space, and its pose relative to the target can be obtained by combining a built-in inclinometer and a GNSS system. To eliminate the coupling of lateral and vertical displacements caused by the perspective projection, a homography-based transformation is introduced to correct the inclined image planes. In contrast to the stereo vision-based displacement measurement techniques, the proposed method does not require the overlapping of the field of views and the calibration of the vision geometry. Both simulation and experiment demonstrate the feasibility and correctness of the proposed method, heralding that it has a potential capacity in the field of remote health monitoring for high-rise buildings.


Tomography ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 200-228
Author(s):  
Tullio Valente ◽  
Giacomo Sica ◽  
Giorgio Bocchini ◽  
Federica Romano ◽  
Francesco Lassandro ◽  
...  

Non-traumatic thoracic aorta emergencies are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases of the intimomedial layers (aortic dissection and variants) have been grouped under the common term of acute aortic syndrome because they are life-threatening conditions clinically indistinguishable on presentation. Patients with aortic dissection may present with a wide variety of symptoms secondary to the pattern of dissection and end organ malperfusion. Other conditions may be seen in patients with acute symptoms, including ruptured and unstable thoracic aortic aneurysm, iatrogenic or infective pseudoaneurysms, aortic fistula, acute aortic thrombus/occlusive disease, and vasculitis. Imaging plays a pivotal role in the patient’s management and care. In the emergency room, chest X-ray is the initial imaging test offering a screening evaluation for alternative common differential diagnoses and a preliminary assessment of the mediastinal dimensions. State-of-the-art multidetector computed tomography angiography (CTA) provides a widely available, rapid, replicable, noninvasive diagnostic imaging with sensitivity approaching 100%. It is an impressive tool in decision-making process with a deep impact on treatment including endovascular or open surgical or conservative treatment. Radiologists must be familiar with the spectrum of these entities to help triage patients appropriately and efficiently. Understanding the imaging findings and proper measurement techniques allow the radiologist to suggest the most appropriate next management step.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Demos Serghiou ◽  
Mohsen Khalily ◽  
Tim Brown ◽  
Rahim Tafazolli

The Terahertz (THz) band (0.1-3.0 THz) spans a great portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum that is mostly unoccupied and unregulated. It is a potential candidate for application in Sixth-Generation (6G) wireless networks as it has the capabilities of satisfying the high data rate and capacity requirements of future wireless communication systems. Profound knowledge of the propagation channel is crucial in communication systems design which nonetheless, is still at its infancy as channel modeling at THz frequencies has been mostly limited to characterizing fixed Point-to-Point (P2P) scenarios up to 300 GHz. Provided the technology matures enough and models adapt to the distinctive characteristics of the THz wave, future wireless communications systems will enable a plethora of new use cases and applications to be realized in addition to delivering higher spectral efficiencies that would ultimately enhance the Quality-of-Service (QoS) to the end user. In this paper, we provide an insight into THz channel propagation characteristics, measurement capabilities and modeling methods along with recommendations that will aid in the development of future models in the THz band. We survey the most recent and important measurement campaigns and modeling efforts found in literature based on the use cases and system requirements identified. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations of measurements and modeling at such high frequencies and contemplate the future research outlook toward realizing the 6G vision.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Demos Serghiou ◽  
Mohsen Khalily ◽  
Tim Brown ◽  
Rahim Tafazolli

Terahertz channel propagation phenomena, measurements and modelling for 6G wireless communication applications: a survey, open challenges and future research directions


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tobias Kippenberg ◽  
Amir Youssefi ◽  
Andrea Bancora ◽  
Shingo Kono ◽  
Mahdi Chegnizadeh ◽  
...  

Abstract Cavity optomechanics enables controlling mechanical motion via radiation pressure interaction [1–3], and has contributed to the quantum control of engineered mechanical systems ranging from kg scale LIGO mirrors to nano-mechanical systems, enabling entanglement [4, 5], squeezing of mechanical objects [6], to position measurements at the standard quantum limit [7], non-reciprocal [8] and quantum transduction [9]. Yet, nearly all prior schemes have employed single- or few-mode optomechanical systems. In contrast, novel dynamics and applications are expected when utilizing optomechanical arrays and lattices [10], which enable to synthesize non-trivial band structures, and have been actively studied in the field of circuit QED [11–14]. Superconducting microwave optomechanical circuits are a promising platform to implement such lattices [15], but have been compounded by strict scaling limitations. Here we overcome this challenge and realize superconducting circuit optomechanical lattices. We demonstrate non-trivial topological microwave modes in 1-D optomechanical chains as well as 2-D honeycomb lattices, realizing the canonical SuSchrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model [16–18]. Exploiting the embedded optomechanical interaction, we show that it is possible to directly measure the mode functions of the bulk band modes, as well as the topologically protected edge states, without using any local probe [19–21] or inducing perturbation [22, 23]. This enables us to reconstruct the full underlying lattice Hamiltonian beyond tight-binding approximations, and directly measure the existing residual disorder. The latter is found to be sufficiently small to observe fully hybridized topological edge modes. Such optomechanical lattices, accompanied by the measurement techniques introduced, of-fers an avenue to explore out of equilibrium physics in optomechanical lattices such as quan-tum [24] and quench [25] dynamics, topological properties [10, 26, 27] and more broadly, emergent nonlinear dynamics in complex optomechanical systems with a large number of degrees of freedoms [28–31].


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Demos Serghiou ◽  
Mohsen Khalily ◽  
Tim Brown ◽  
Rahim Tafazolli

The Terahertz (THz) band (0.1-3.0 THz) spans a great portion of the Radio Frequency (RF) spectrum that is mostly unoccupied and unregulated. It is a potential candidate for application in Sixth-Generation (6G) wireless networks as it has the capabilities of satisfying the high data rate and capacity requirements of future wireless communication systems. Profound knowledge of the propagation channel is crucial in communication systems design which nonetheless, is still at its infancy as channel modeling at THz frequencies has been mostly limited to characterizing fixed Point-to-Point (P2P) scenarios up to 300 GHz. Provided the technology matures enough and models adapt to the distinctive characteristics of the THz wave, future wireless communications systems will enable a plethora of new use cases and applications to be realized in addition to delivering higher spectral efficiencies that would ultimately enhance the Quality-of-Service (QoS) to the end user. In this paper, we provide an insight into THz channel propagation characteristics, measurement capabilities and modeling methods along with recommendations that will aid in the development of future models in the THz band. We survey the most recent and important measurement campaigns and modeling efforts found in literature based on the use cases and system requirements identified. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations of measurements and modeling at such high frequencies and contemplate the future research outlook toward realizing the 6G vision.


Author(s):  
Meng Yuan ◽  
Justin Zobel ◽  
Pauline Lin

AbstractClustering of the contents of a document corpus is used to create sub-corpora with the intention that they are expected to consist of documents that are related to each other. However, while clustering is used in a variety of ways in document applications such as information retrieval, and a range of methods have been applied to the task, there has been relatively little exploration of how well it works in practice. Indeed, given the high dimensionality of the data it is possible that clustering may not always produce meaningful outcomes. In this paper we use a well-known clustering method to explore a variety of techniques, existing and novel, to measure clustering effectiveness. Results with our new, extrinsic techniques based on relevance judgements or retrieved documents demonstrate that retrieval-based information can be used to assess the quality of clustering, and also show that clustering can succeed to some extent at gathering together similar material. Further, they show that intrinsic clustering techniques that have been shown to be informative in other domains do not work for information retrieval. Whether clustering is sufficiently effective to have a significant impact on practical retrieval is unclear, but as the results show our measurement techniques can effectively distinguish between clustering methods.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Margaret Chen ◽  
Rui Aleixo ◽  
Massimo Guerrero ◽  
Rui Ferreira

Abstract. W.A.T.E.R. stands for Workshop on Advanced measurement Techniques and Experimental Research. It is an initiative started in 2016, in the scope of the Experimental Methods and Instrumentation (EMI) committee of the International Association for Hydroenvironment Research (IAHR) aimed to advance the use of experimental techniques in hydraulics and fluid mechanics research. It provides a structured approach for the learning and training platform to postgraduate students, young researchers, and professionals with an experimental background in fluid mechanics. It offers an opportunity to learn about state-of-the-art instrumentation and measurement techniques and the latest developments in the field by partnering with manufacturers. The W.A.T.E.R. brings together academics, instrumentation manufacturers, and public sectors in a structured setting to share knowledge and to learn from good practices. It is about training people that already have certain knowledge and skill level but need to go deeper and/or wider in the field of measurement and experimental research.


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