virulence factors
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2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
pp. 103934
Andrea Colautti ◽  
Martina Arnoldi ◽  
Giuseppe Comi ◽  
Lucilla Iacumin

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiangyu Fan ◽  
Zichen Liu ◽  
Zhibin Wan ◽  
Hanlu Zou ◽  
Mengzhi Ji ◽  

BackgroundInduced by the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tuberculosis remains one of the most dangerous infectious diseases in the world. As a special virus, prophage is domesticated by its host and are major contributors to virulence factors for bacterial pathogenicity. The function of prophages and their genes in M. tuberculosis is still unknown.MethodsRv2650c is a prophage gene in M. tuberculosis genome. We constructed recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis) to observe bacteria morphology and analyze the resistance to various adverse environments. Recombinant and control strains were used to infect macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, we performed ELISA experiments of infected macrophages.ResultsRv2650c affected the spread of colonies of M. smegmatis and enhanced the resistance of M. smegmatis to macrophages and various stress agents such as acid, oxidative stress, and surfactant. ELISA experiments revealed that the Rv2650c can inhibit the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and IL-6.ConclusionThis study demonstrates that the prophage gene Rv2650c can inhibit the spread of colonies and the expression of inflammatory factors and promote intracellular survival of M. smegmatis. These results build the foundation for the discovery of virulence factors of M. tuberculosis, and provide novel insights into the function of the prophage in Mycobacterium.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 948
Urszula Wójcik-Bojek ◽  
Barbara Różalska ◽  
Beata Sadowska

The main purpose of this review is to present justification for the urgent need to implement specific prophylaxis of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections. We emphasize the difficulties in achieving this goal due to numerous S. aureus virulence factors important for the process of infection and the remarkable ability of these bacteria to avoid host defense mechanisms. We precede these considerations with a brief overview of the global necessitiy to intensify the use of vaccines against other pathogens as well, particularly in light of an impasse in antibiotic therapy. Finally, we point out global trends in research into modern technologies used in the field of molecular microbiology to develop new vaccines. We focus on the vaccines designed to fight the infections caused by S. aureus, which are often resistant to the majority of available therapeutic options.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 213
Sabrina Cherubini ◽  
Mariagrazia Perilli ◽  
Anna Maria Azzini ◽  
Evelina Tacconelli ◽  
Laura Maccacaro ◽  

Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are important reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria which colonize patients transferred from the hospital, or they may emerge in the facility as a result of mutation or gene transfer. In the present study, we characterized, from a molecular point of view, 43 E. coli strains collected from residents of LTCFs in Northern Italy. The most common lineage found was ST131, followed by sporadic presence of ST12, ST69, ST48, ST95, ST410 and ST1193. All strains were incubators of several virulence factors, with iss, sat, iha and senB being found in 84%, 72%, 63% and 51% of E. coli, respectively. Thirty of the ST131 analyzed were of the O25b:H4 serotype and H30 subclone. The ST131 isolates were found to be mainly associated with IncF plasmids, CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, CTX-M-15, CTX-M-27 and gyrA/parC/parE mutations. Metallo-β-lactamases were not found in ST131, whereas KPC-3 carbapenemase was found only in two ST131 and one ST1193. In conclusion, we confirmed the spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase genes in E. coli ST131 isolated from colonized residents living inside LTCFs. The ST131 represents an incubator of fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides and other antibiotic resistance genes in addition to different virulence factors.

Janette Chammas ◽  
Mallika Iyer ◽  
George Minasov ◽  
Ludmilla Shuvalova ◽  
Wayne Anderson ◽  

Pathogenic bacteria attack their host by secreting virulence factors that in various ways interrupt host defenses and damage their cells. Functions of many virulence factors, even from well-studied pathogens, are still unknown. Francisella tularensis is a class A pathogen and a causative agent of tularemia, a disease that is lethal without proper treatment. Here we report the three-dimensional structure and preliminary analysis of the potential virulence factor identified by the transcriptomic analysis of the F. tularensis disease models that is encoded by the FTT_1539 gene. The structure of the FTT_1539 protein contains two sets of three stranded antiparallel beta sheets, with a helix placed between the first and the second beta strand in each sheet. This structural motif, previously seen in virulence factors from other pathogens, was named the SHS2 motif and identified to play a role in protein-protein interactions and small molecule recognition. Sequence and structure analysis identified FTT_1539 as a member of a large family of secreted proteins from a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, such as Helicobacter pylori and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. While the specific function of the proteins from this class is still unknown, their similarity to the H. pylori Tip-α protein that induces TNF-a and other chemokines through NF-kB activation suggests the existence of a common pathogen-host interference mechanism shared by multiple human pathogens.

Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz ◽  
Pernille Kronholm Rasmussen ◽  
Małgorzata Murawska ◽  
Stephen Douthwaite

Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of food poisoning worldwide, and remains the main infective agent in gastroenteritis and related intestinal disorders in Europe and the USA. As with all bacterial infections, the stages of adhesion to host tissue, survival in the host and eliciting disease all require the synthesis of proteinaceous virulence factors on the ribosomes of the pathogen. Here, we describe how C. jejuni virulence is attenuated by altering the methylation of its ribosomes to disrupt the composition of its proteome, and how this in turn provides a means of identifying factors that are essential for infection and pathogenesis. Specifically, inactivation of the C. jejuni Cj0588/TlyA methyltransferase prevents methylation of nucleotide C1920 in the 23S rRNA of its ribosomes and reduces the pathogen’s ability to form biofilms, to attach, invade and survive in host cells, and to provoke the innate immune response. Mass spectrometric analyses of C. jejuni TlyA-minus strains revealed an array of subtle changes in the proteome composition. These included reduced amounts of the cytolethal distending toxin (CdtC) and the MlaEFD proteins connected with outer membrane vesicle (OMV) production. Inactivation of the cdtC and mlaEFD genes confirmed the importance of their encoded proteins in establishing infection. Collectively, the data identify a subset of genes required for the onset of human campylobacteriosis, and serve as a proof of principle for use of this approach in detecting proteins involved in bacterial pathogenesis.

2022 ◽  
pp. postgradmedj-2021-139916
Martin C Nwadiugwu ◽  
Nelson Monteiro

Fortifying our preparedness to cope with biological threats by identifying and targeting virulence factors may be a preventative strategy for curtailing infectious disease outbreak. Virulence factors evoke successful pathogenic invasion, and the science and technology of genomics offers a way of identifying them, their agents and evolutionary ancestor. Genomics offers the possibility of deciphering if the release of a pathogen was intentional or natural by observing sequence and annotated data of the causative agent, and evidence of genetic engineering such as cloned vectors at restriction sites. However, to leverage and maximise the application of genomics to strengthen global interception system for real-time biothreat diagnostics, a complete genomic library of pathogenic and non-pathogenic agents will create a robust reference assembly that can be used to screen, characterise, track and trace new and existing strains. Encouraging ethical research sequencing pathogens found in animals and the environment, as well as creating a global space for collaboration will lead to effective global regulation and biosurveillance.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262236
Bartosz Rybak ◽  
Beata Krawczyk ◽  
Beata Furmanek-Blaszk ◽  
Magdalena Wysocka ◽  
Magdalena Fordon ◽  

Wild birds can be colonized by bacteria, which are often resistant to antibiotics and have various virulence profiles. The aim of this study was to analyze antibiotic resistance mechanisms and virulence profiles in relation to the phylogenetic group of E. coli strains that were isolated from the GI tract of wildfowl. Out of 241 faecal samples, presence of E. coli resistant to a cephalosporin (ESBL/AmpC) was estimated for 33 isolates (13,7%). Based on the analysis of the coexistence of 4 genes encoding ESBLs/AmpC (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, blaSHV, blaAmpC) and class 1 and 2 integrons genes (intI1, intI2) a subset of two resistance profiles was observed among the investigated E. coli isolates carrying blaAmpC, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M, blaTEM, class 1 and 2 integrons, respectively. The E. coli isolates were categorized into 4 phylogenetic groups A (39.4%), B2 (24.25%), D (24.25%) and B1 (12.1%). The pathogenic B2 and D groups were mainly typical for the Laridae family. Among the 28 virulence factors (Vfs) detected in pathogenic phylogenetic groups B2 and D, 7 were exclusively found in those groups (sfa, vat, tosA, tosB, hly, usp, cnf), while 4 VFs (fecA, fyuA, irp2, kspMTII) showed a statistically significant association (P≤0.05) with phylogroups A and B1. Our results indicated that strains belonging to commensal phylogroups A/B1 possess extensive iron acquisition systems (93,9%) and autotransporters (60,6%), typical for pathogens, hence we suggest that these strains evolve towards higher levels of virulence. This study, which is a point assessment of the virulence and drug resistance potential of wild birds, confirms the importance of taking wild birds as a reservoir of strains that pose a growing threat to humans. The E. coli analyzed in our study derive from different phylogenetic groups and possess an arsenal of antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors that contribute to their ability to cause diseases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Guoquan Chen ◽  
Ziyang Tan ◽  
Yansheng Liu ◽  
Tingting Weng ◽  
Liqun Xia ◽  

Fish nocardiosis is a chronic, systemic, granulomatous disease in aquaculture. Nocardia seriolae has been reported to be one of the main pathogenic bacteria of fish nocardiosis. There are few studies on the associated virulence factors and pathogenesis of N. seriolae. Alanine dehydrogenase (ALD), which may be a secreted protein, was discovered by analysis using bioinformatics methods throughout the whole genomic sequence of N. seriolae. Nevertheless, the roles of ALD and its homologs in the pathogenesis of N. seriolae are not demonstrated. In this study, the function of N. seriolae ALD (NsALD) was preliminarily investigated by gene cloning, host cell subcellular localization, secreted protein identification, and cell apoptosis detection. Identification of the extracellular products of N. seriolae via mass spectrometry (MS) analysis revealed that NsALD is a secreted protein. In addition, subcellular localization of NsALD-GFP recombinant protein in fathead minnow (FHM) cells showed that the strong green fluorescence co-localized with the mitochondria. Moreover, apoptosis assays demonstrated that the overexpression of NsALD induces apoptosis in FHM cells. This study may lay the foundation for further exploration of the function of NsALD and facilitate further understanding of the pathogenic mechanism and the associated virulence factors of N. seriolae.

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