banding technique
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
U. A. Awan ◽  
N. Farooq ◽  
A. Sarwar ◽  
H. M. S. Jehangir ◽  
M. S. Hashmi ◽  

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 71 (6) ◽  
pp. 2161-65
Sara Ali Zaidi ◽  
Asad Mahmood ◽  
Rafia Mahmood ◽  
Aamna Latif ◽  
Helen Mary Robert ◽  

Objective: To determine the magnitude and classification of cases of ambiguous genitalia presenting to our setup. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Haematology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi Pakistan, from Aug 2018 to Feb 2019. Methodology: All the patients with ambiguous genitalia referred for cytogenetic analysis, were included in the study. The patients were subjected to a detailed history and physical examination. The record of radiological investigations was were obtained. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the conventional G-banding technique. Hormonal testing included 17- hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) levels was also performed. Results: Fifty-one cases of ambiguous genitalia were studied. The median age was 15 months. Thirty-three patients (64.7%) had a 46XY karyotype, 17 (33.3%) had a 46XX karyotype while 1 (1.9%) had 45X/46, XY mosaic karyotype. Thirty patients (58.8%) were products of consanguineous marriage. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia was diagnosed in 12 cases (70.5%) of 46 XX karyotype and in 3 cases (9%) of 46XY karyotype. Conclusion: Ambiguous genitalia, currently categorized as disorders of sex development, are not uncommon in our populartion. Increased awareness and early diagnosis are crucial to prevent life threatening complications of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, to determine sex of rearing, and to counsel the parents or patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Gefei Xiao ◽  
Xianrong Qiu ◽  
Yuqiu Zhou ◽  
Gongjun Tan ◽  
Yao Shen

Abstract Objective We present a genetic analysis of an asymptomatic family with a 4q terminal deletion; we also review other similar published studies and discuss the genotype–phenotype correlation. Methods A karyotype analysis was performed on the amniotic fluid cells of a woman at 24 weeks of pregnancy and peripheral blood lymphocytes from both parents and their older son with the conventional G-banding technique. Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) testing was carried out for both parents and the fetus to analyze copy number variation (CNV) in the whole genome. Results The results showed no abnormalities in the karyotypes of the father and older son, and the karyotypes of the mother and fetus were 46,XX,del(4)(q35.1) and 46,XY,del(4)(q35.1), respectively. CMA results showed a partial deletion at the 4q terminus in both the fetus and mother. The deletion region of the fetus was arr[GRCh37] 4q35.1q35.2(186,431,008_190,957,460) × 1; the loss size of the CNV was approximately 4.5 Mb and involved 14 protein-coding genes, namely, CYP4V2, F11, FAM149A, FAT1, FRG1, FRG2, KLKB1, MTNR1A, PDLIM3, SORBS2, TLR3, TRIML1, TRIML2, and ZFP42. No variation on chromosome 4 was detected in the father’s CMA results. Conclusion Deletion of the 4q subtelomeric region is a familial variation. The arr[GRCh37] 4q35.1q35.2(186,431,008_190,957,460) region single-copy deletion did not cause obvious congenital defects or mental retardation. The application of high-resolution genetic testing technology combined with the analysis of public genetic database information can more clearly elucidate the genotype–phenotype correlation of the disease and provide support for both prenatal and postnatal genetic counseling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_6) ◽  
J Tebby ◽  
M Ahmadi ◽  
R Gadd ◽  
C Van Breevoort ◽  
M Farndon

Abstract Aim Plaster immobilisation alongside wound compression after surgery is often required but not easy to balance. If a plaster is too loose then it may not produce sufficient wound compression but if the cast is too restrictive it may be uncomfortable and lead to complications. Our aim is to provide a technique that addresses these imbalances. Method Compressive base layer banding technique involves tightly wrapping the wound dressing with wool and crepe then applying a well-padded plaster on top. The technique was prospectively audited and compared to other practice within our centre. The aims were to show that the technique was safe and to look for potential benefits for patients and healthcare staff. Both groups included trauma and elective patients treated by a similar set of foot and ankle operations. We audited patients on their experiences, concerns and time spent having their cast changed. Results Primarily, the results showed that the technique was safe with no severe complications. The time for a plaster change reduced by a third, from 24 minutes (control group n = 28) to 16 minutes (intervention group n = 27). Dressing changes at the same time were reduced by 80%. The intervention group were happier with their casts, had lower levels of concerns regarding their attendance and their risk of infection. Conclusions Our audit has shown that the compressive bandaging technique is safe (non-inferior) compared to current practices at our hospital. The technique has the benefit of reducing the time patients spend being face-to-face during plaster change and reduces both their discomfort and concern.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Felicitas Söhner ◽  
Nils Hansson

Abstract Background Scholars agree that Torbjörn Caspersson’s lab at the Institute of Medical Cell Research and Genetics at the Karolinska Institute, Sweden, played a key role in the first description of the so-called Q-banding technique. It laid the foundation for a new era of cytogenetic diagnostics and had a lasting impact in several areas of biology and medicine. Methods Based on a mixed-method approach, essential aspects of the history of human cytogenetics are considered via primary and secondary analysis of biographical interviews as well as the qualitative evaluation of bibliometrics. Drawing on interviews with colleagues of lab member Lore Zech (1923–2013) and contemporary publications, this paper illuminates the role of and contribution by Zech: To what extent is the discovery attached to her and what does her legacy look like today? Results The analysis of the contemporary witness interviews with colleagues, students and junior researchers shows that Lore Zech was a committed member of Caspersson's research group. In addition, memoirs by contemporary colleagues describe her outstanding skills in microscopy. The different sources paint a multifaceted picture. In addition to the historians' patterns of interpretation, different legacies can also be found within the peer group. Conclusions We argue that Zech represent the type of scientist who, although her research was acknowledged with several prizes, so far has not been part of the canon of pioneers of international cytogenetics.

Caryologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 74 (1) ◽  
pp. 89-96
Surachest Aiumsumang ◽  
Sumalee Phimphan ◽  
Chatmongkon Suwannapoom ◽  
Patcharaporn Chaiyasan ◽  
Weerayuth Supiwong ◽  

The cytogenetic comparisons of five Minnow species from Thailand were presented here, i.e., Devario regina, D. laoensis, Rasbora paviana, R. aurotaenia and Esomus metalicus. The mitotic chromosomes were prepared directly from renal cells. Conventional staining and Ag-NOR banding techniques were applied to stain the chromosomes. The results revealed that all Minnow fishes studied possessed the same diploid chromosome number (2n) as 50 chromosomes. The fundamental numbers (NF) of D. laoensis, D. regina, R. paviana, R. aurotaenia and E. metalicus are 100, 100, 98, 98, and 98 respectively. Their karyotypes composing of metacentrics-submetacentrics-acrocentrics-telocentrics were as follows: 6-12-32-0 in D. regina, 6-10-34-0 in D. laoensis, 8-16-24-2 in R. paviana, 8-16-24-2 in R. aurotaenia and 8-10-30-2 in E. metalicus. The Ag-NOR banding technique provides the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) at subtelomeric region of the short arm chromosome in the a submetacentric or acrocentric chromosomes that are located differently in the different chromosome pairs among species. 

Sofia S. CERQUEIRA ◽  
Joana M. FERREIRA ◽  
Mónica R. FRUTUOSO ◽  
Catarina EUSEBIO ◽  
Rui A. CASTRO ◽  

Sara Khorami Sarvestani ◽  
Maryam Rafati ◽  
Haleh Soltanghoraee ◽  
Azadeh Hoseini ◽  
Azadeh Soltani ◽  

Background: Around 70% of all pregnancies (Including 15% of clinically-recognized ones) are lost due to various fetal or maternal disorders. Chromosomal aneuploidies are among the most common causes of pregnancy loss. Standard chromosome analysis using G-banding technique (Karyotype) is the technique of choice in studying such abnormalities; however, this technique is time-consuming and  sensitive, and limited by vulnerabilities such as cell culture failure. The use of molecular cytogenetic techniques, including array-based techniques and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), has been proposed to overcome the limitations of this method to study the products of conception. This study has been designed to investigate the feasibility of using MLPA technique as a standalone genetic testing, with histopathologic examinations and genetic counseling to detect aneuploidies in products of conception and neonatal deaths.   Methods: Forty-two verified fetal and neonatal samples were studies and genetic counseling was scheduled for all parents. Histopathologic examinations were carried out on the products of conception, and appropriate fetal tissues were separated for genetic studies. Following DNA extraction and purification, MLPA was carried out to investigate chromosomal aneuploidies.   Results: Nine samples (21.42%) were diagnosed to be affected with aneuploidy. Detected aneuploidies were trisomy 22 (n=3), trisomy 21(n=1), trisomy 18 (n=2), trisomy 16 (n=1), trisomy 13 (n=1), and monosomy of chromosome X (n=1). The MLPA analysis results were conclusive for all of the fetal samples (Success rate: 100%).   Conclusion: These results suggest that MLPA, as a standalone genetic testing, is an accurate, rapid, and reliable method in overcoming the limitations of standard cytogenetic techniques in genetic investigation of products of conception.

Abhik Chakraborty ◽  
Indira Palo ◽  
Souvick Roy ◽  
Shu Wen Koh ◽  
Manoor Prakash Hande ◽  

Background: Balanced translocation and azoospermia as two main reasons for recurrent pregnancy loss are known to be the leading causes of infertility across the world. Balanced translocations in azoospermic males are very rare and extensive studies need to be performed to elucidate the translocation status of the affected individuals. Case Presentaion: The cytogenetic characterization of a 28 year old male and his female partner is reported in this study. The male partner was diagnosed with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) and the couple was unable to conceive. Cytogenetic analysis by karyotyping through Giemsa-trypsin-giemsa banding technique (GTG) showed a novel balanced translocation, 46,XY,t(19;22)(19q13.4;22q11.2), 13ps+ in the male and the female karyotype was found to be 46,XX. Multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (mFISH) analysis on paternal chromosomal preparations con-firmed both the region and origin of balanced translocation. The status of Y chromo-some microdeletion (YMD) was analyzed and no notable microdeletion was ob-served. Furthermore, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis was per-formed for breakpoint regions to explore the possible functional genetic associations. Conclusion: The azoospermic condition of the male patient along with novel bal-anced chromosomal translocation was responsible for infertility irrespective of its YMD status. Therefore, cytogenetic screening of azoospermic patients should be performed in addition to routine semen analysis to rule out or to confirm presence of any numerical or structural anomaly in the patient.

Ozlem Oz

Abstract Objectives Chromosome anomalies and Y chromosome microdeletions are one of the reasons that can be seen in infertile patients and affect fertility. In this study, it was aimed to determine the frequencies of chromosomal anomalies and Y chromosome microdeletions in primary infertile male patients. Methods We included 374 patients with primary infertility in this study. Cytogenetic analysis was performed with the GTG banding technique by using trypsin and Giemsa stain. Y microdeletion analysis was studied by multiplex polymerase chain reaction using 28 Y chromosome-specific sequence-tagged sites. Results Chromosomal irregularities were detected in 27 (7.22%) of infertile cases. It was observed that 7 (25.92%) of chromosomal irregularities detected in cases were in autosomal and 20 (%74.08) were in gonosomal chromosomes. The incidence of Y chromosome microdeletion was 1.07% (4/374) and the microdeletions were observed in AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions. AZFc + AZFd deletion was detected in three patients (0.81%) and AZFb + AZFc + AZFd deletion in one patient (0.26%). Conclusions In conclusion, gonosomal chromosome irregularity was higher than autosomal chromosome irregularity in infertile men. The frequency of Y microdeletion has different rates according to some factors such as ethnic differences of patients, patient selection criteria, differences in the number of cases, and methodological aspects.

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