cycloaddition reaction
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Vipin Singh ◽  
Shanta Raj Lakshmi ◽  
L. Raju Chowhan

A short and efficient multicomponent sequence for synthesizing fused novel polyheterocyclic chromeno spiro-pyrrolidine oxindoles via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction mediated by reactive azomethine ylides catalyzed by the Graphene Oxide (GO) is reported herein. This approach was utilized for synthesizing fused polyheterocyclic spiro-pyrrolothiazole and spiro-pyrrole oxindoles with yields ranging from good to excellent. A heterogeneous GO catalyst with an ultra-low catalytic loading of 0.05 wt% could proficiently catalyze the reaction without the formation of any side products and can also be visualized by the formation of solid mass in the reaction flask. The methodology is green in nature and the products were isolated by simple filtration without the use of any chromatographic techniques.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 359
Bo Xu ◽  
Xiaotian Shi ◽  
Xiang Liu ◽  
Hua Cao

Chiral cyclic molecules are some of the most important compounds in nature, and are widely used in the fields of drugs, materials, synthesis, etc. Enantioselective photocatalysis has become a powerful tool for organic synthesis of chiral cyclic molecules. Herein, this review summarized the research progress in the synthesis of chiral cyclic compounds by photocatalytic cycloaddition reaction in the past 5 years, and expounded the reaction conditions, characters, and corresponding proposed mechanism, hoping to guide and promote the development of this field.

Rahhal El Ajlaoui ◽  
Yassine Hakmaoui ◽  
El Mostapha Rakib ◽  
El Mostafa Ketatni ◽  
Mohamed Saadi ◽  

The title compound, C17H17BrN2O5, resulted from the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate and (3-bromobenzylidene)-4-methyl-5-oxopyrazolidin-2-ium-1-ide in CHCl3. The dihedral angle between the pyrazole rings (all atoms) is 32.91 (10)°; the oxo-pyrazole ring displays an envelope conformation whereas the other pyrazole ring adopts a twisted conformation. The bromophenyl ring subtends a dihedral angle of 88.95 (9)° with the mean plane of its attached pyrazole ring. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and aromatic π–π interactions with an inter-centroid distance of 3.8369 (10) Å. The Hirshfeld surface analysis and fingerprint plots reveal that the molecular packing is governed by H...H (37.1%), O...H/H...O (31.3%), Br...H/H...Br (13.5%) and C...H/H...C (10.6%) contacts. The energy framework indicates that dispersion energy is the major contributor to the molecular packing.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Angel Green Samuel ◽  
Sowmya Subramanian ◽  
Vijaikanth Vijendran ◽  
Jebasingh Bhagavathsingh

We report stable and heterogeneous graphene oxide (GO)–intercalated copper as an efficient catalyst for the organic transformations in green solvents. The GO-intercalated copper(II) complex of bis(1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) [Cu(II)-bis-cyclen] was prepared by a facile synthetic approach with a high dilution technique. The as-prepared GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite was used as a click catalyst for the 1,3 dipolar Huisgen cycloaddition reaction of terminal alkyne and azide substrates. On directing a great deal of attention toward the feasibility of the rapid electron transfer rate of the catalyst in proliferating the yield of 1,2,3-triazole products, the click catalyst GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite was designed and synthesized via non-covalent functionalization. The presence of a higher coordination site in an efficient 2D nanocomposite promotes the stabilization of Cu(I) L-acetylide intermediate during the catalytic cycle initiated by the addition of reductants. From the XRD analysis, the enhancement in the d-interlayer spacing of 1.04 nm was observed due to the intercalation of the Cu(II)-bis-cyclen complex in between the GO basal planes. It was also characterized by XPS, FT-IR, RAMAN, UV, SEM, AFM, and TGA techniques. The recyclability of the heterogeneous catalyst [GO-Cu(II)-cyclen] with the solvent effect has also been studied. This class of GO-Cu(II)-bis-cyclen nanocomposite paves the way for bioconjugation of macromolecules through the click chemistry approach.

2022 ◽  
F. F. Ort

The basic principles of the copper-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC), widely considered to be the first click reaction, are described. This involves amongst others the concept of click reactions, the mechanism of CuAAC, the synthesis and reactivity of organic azides and acetylenes, an overview of most commonly used copper(I) catalysts and ligands, the properties of 1,2,3-triazoles and their resemblance to amides, and a general overview of the scope and limitations of this reaction.

Hanmin Huang ◽  
Yongzheng Ding ◽  
Min Si

A palladium-catalyzed tandem carbonylative lactonization and cycloaddition reaction of 2-vinyl acetophenones with alkenes and CO has been established. This reaction enables an efficient conversion of the easily available alkenes to...

Catalysts ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 45
Ivy L. Librando ◽  
Abdallah G. Mahmoud ◽  
Sónia A. C. Carabineiro ◽  
M. Fátima C. Guedes da Silva ◽  
Francisco J. Maldonado-Hódar ◽  

A supported gold nanoparticle-catalyzed strategy has been utilized to promote a click chemistry reaction for the synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles via the azide-alkyne cycloaddition (AAC) reaction. While the advent of effective non-copper catalysts (i.e., Ru, Ag, Ir) has demonstrated the catalysis of the AAC reaction, additional robust catalytic systems complementary to the copper catalyzed AAC remain in high demand. Herein, Au nanoparticles supported on Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and ZnO, along with gold reference catalysts (gold on carbon and gold on titania supplied by the World Gold Council) were used as catalysts for the AAC reaction. The supported Au nanoparticles with metal loadings of 0.7–1.6% (w/w relative to support) were able to selectively obtain 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles in moderate yields up to 79% after 15 min, under microwave irradiation at 150 °C using a 0.5–1.0 mol% catalyst loading through a one-pot three-component (terminal alkyne, organohalide and sodium azide) procedure according to the “click” rules. Among the supported Au catalysts, Au/TiO2 gave the best results.

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